2. Professional differentiation among wage and salary earners and entrepreneurs in 2017 and 2012

The share of wage and salary earners working in equal occupations among all wage and salary earners was ten per cent in 2017 and had dropped by five percentage points over five years. The share of entrepreneurs working in equal occupations was 14 per cent, which remained unchanged from 2012.

Figure 1. Number of wage and salary earners in various segregation classes in 2012 and 2017

Figure 1. Number of wage and salary earners in various segregation classes in 2012 and 2017

Professional differentiation by sex, segregation, is based on the classification of occupational groups by gender proportions. The strength of the segregation is determined based on how many persons work in equal occupational groups.

Table 1. 5-class segregation classification of occupations

Segregation class The occupational groups in which
Female occupation women > 90 %
Female-dominated occupation 60 % < share of women <= 90 %
Equal occupation 40 % <= share of women / men <= 60 %
Male-dominated occupation 60 % < share of men <= 90 %
Male occupation men > 90 %

Occupational segregation among wage and salary earners and entrepreneurs was examined based on the 5-digit level of the Classification of Occupations 2010.

2.1 Share of wage and salary earners working in equal occupations has fallen by five percentage points in five years

In 2017, 8.9 per cent of all wage and salary earners were in so-called equal occupational groups, where the share of different sexes among those included in the occupational group is 40 to 60 per cent. The share of wage and salary earners working in equal occupations among all wage and salary earners (excl. Occupational data missing) was about five percentage points lower in 2017 than in 2012.

For example, the following occupational groups had been removed from equal occupations of wage and salary earners over five years: commercial sales representatives (37,400), administration and trade development professionals (16,300) and mail carriers (10 000). In total, 92,900 persons and 25 occupational groups were removed from equal occupations of wage and salary earners in five years. Only 14,700 wage and salary earners were working in occupations that have become more even by their gender distribution and some 15 occupational groups of equal occupations came into being. The biggest occupational groups that have become equal occupational groups were management and organisation analysts (6,300 persons), building construction architects (3,200 persons) and legal professionals not elsewhere classified (2,200 persons).

For wage and salary earners, the most evenly divided occupational groups in 2017 were farm relief workers (4,200 persons in total of whom 49.9 per cent women and 50.1 per cent men), advertising and public relations managers (1,100 persons in total of whom 50.5 per cent women and 49.5 per cent men), and livestock workers (2,500 persons in total of whom 50.5 per cent women and 49.5 per cent men).

In 2017, wage and salary earners' most common equal occupational groups were food and related products machine operators (14,700 persons), advertising and marketing professionals (14,500 persons) and vocational education teachers (13,200 persons).

Table 2. Wage and salary earners aged 18 to 74 in segregation classes in 2017 1)

Segregation class Wage and salary earners Share of wage and salary earners, % Women Share of women, % Men Share of men, %
Female occupation 306,592 15.1 287,041 27.3 19,551 2.0
Female dominated occupation 710,484 35.0 535,677 50.9 174,807 17.8
Equal occupation 181,536 8.9 93,199 8.9 88,337 9.0
Male dominated occupation 502,364 24.7 119,216 11.3 383,148 39.1
Male occupation 331,609 16.3 16,690 1.6 314,919 32.1
Total 2,032,585 100.0 1,051,823 100.0 980,762 100.0
1) Segregation classes are based on the 5-digit level of the Classification of Occupations 2010. The shares in the tables are for the wage and salary earners for whom the occupational group was known. The total number of wage and salary earners was 2,097,703 of whom 51.6 per cent were women and 48.4 per cent men. The data on occupations remained unknown for 3.1 per cent of all wage and salary earners and for some 3.4 per cent of female wage and salary earners and 2.8 per cent of male wage and salary earners in 2017.
2.2 Share of entrepreneurs working in equal occupations among all entrepreneurs has grown

In 2017, a total of 14 per cent of all entrepreneurs were in equal occupations, where the share of different sexes among those included in the occupational groups is 40 to 60 per cent. The share of entrepreneurs working in equal occupations among all entrepreneurs in 2017(excl. occupational data missing) did not change from 2012. The examination disregards the fact that women's share of all entrepreneurs was only 34 per cent.

Figure 2. Number of entrepreneurs in various segregation classes in 2012 and 2017

Figure 2. Number of entrepreneurs in various segregation classes in 2012 and 2017

For entrepreneurs, occupational groups that have become equal occupations in five years were such as gardeners, horticultural and nursery growers (1,100 persons) and stall and market salespersons (500 persons). The biggest of the removed equal occupational groups was visual artists (400 persons). In five years, 1,900 entrepreneurs came to equal occupations and around 1,600 were removed from there.

For entrepreneurs, the most evenly divided occupational groups were, e.g. gallery, museum and library technicians (around 60 persons in total of whom 50.0 per cent women and 50.0 per cent men), philosophers, historians and political scientists (110 persons in total of whom 50.0 per cent women and 50 per cent men), domestic housekeepers (450 persons in total of whom 50.1 per cent women and 49.9 per cent men), and .medical practitioners (450 persons in total of whom 48.9 per cent women and 51.1 per cent men.

In 2017, the most common equal occupational groups of entrepreneurs were shop keepers (small entrepreneurs) (9,400 persons), restaurant services supervisors and shift managers (4,300 persons) and fitness and recreation instructors and program leaders (2,300 persons).

Table 3. Entrepreneurs aged 18 to 74 in segregation classes in 2017 1)

Segregation class Entrepreneurs Share of entrepreneurs, % Women Share of women, % Men Share of men, %
Female occupation 13,384 6.5 12,640 18.8 744 0.5
Female dominated occupation 21,508 10.5 15,086 22.5 6,422 4.6
Equal occupation 29,196 14.2 13,781 20.5 15,415 11.1
Male dominated occupation 90,463 44.0 22,748 33.9 67,715 48.9
Male occupation 50,953 24.8 2,847 4.2 48,106 34.8
Total 205,504 100.0 67,102 100.0 138,402 100.0
1) Segregation classes are based on the 5-digit level of the Classification of Occupations 2010. The shares in the tables are for the entrepreneurs for whom the occupational group was known. The total number of entrepreneurs was 230,027 of whom 33.8 per cent were women and 66.2 per cent men. The data on occupations remained unknown for some 10.7 per cent of all entrepreneurs, for some 13.7 per cent of female entrepreneurs and some 9.1 per cent of male entrepreneurs in 2017. In 2017, data on occupations remained unknown for some 10.7 per cent of all entrepreneurs, for 13.7 per cent of women and 9.1 per cent of men.

Source: Employment Statistics, Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Elina Mikkelä 029 551 2973, Juho Keva 029 551 3601, info@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma


Updated 01.11.2019

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Employment [e-publication].
ISSN=2323-6825. Industry, employer sector and jobs 2017, 2. Professional differentiation among wage and salary earners and entrepreneurs in 2017 and 2012 . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 13.12.2019].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/tyokay/2017/04/tyokay_2017_04_2019-11-01_kat_002_en.html