2. Persons suspected of solved offences

2.1 Solved offences

During 2015, the police, customs and border guard solved a total of 236,500 offences. The clearance rate was 57.2 per cent, which was 0.6 percentage points higher than in the previous year. The clearance rate for offences is calculated so that the offences recorded by the police in the statistical reference year and all the offences solved in that same year are compared with each other. For this reason, the clearance rate may be over 100 for some offences.

Among municipalities of over 30,000 inhabitants the clearance rate was the highest in Joensuu (73.2%), Kajaani (70.8%) and Pori (70.0%). The lowest clearance rates were found in Järvenpää (46.7%); Kerava (46.8%) and Hyvinkää (49.6%).

The clearance rate varies by type of offence quite strongly. In all, 37.4 per cent of offences against property and 70.5 per cent of offences against life and health were solved. Due to the manner of disclosure, drunken driving and traffic offences, and offences involving intoxicating substances almost all become solved. In all, 68.1 per cent of frauds (Penal Code, Section 36, Paragraphs 1 to 3) and 77.1 per cent of offences against life were solved. The clearance rate was 70.2 per cent for assault offences.

The clearance rates are the lowest for theft offences (theft, aggravated theft, petty theft), damages to property, means of payment frauds and unauthorised thefts of a motor vehicle. In 2015, fewer than every sixth theft (Penal Code, Section 28, Paragraphs 1 to 2) was solved. In turn, over one-half of petty thefts were solved. Good one-fifth of damages to property and one in ten means of payment frauds were cleared. One-third of unauthorised thefts of a motor vehicle were solved. Good one-half of robberies were solved.

Table 3. Clearance rate of certain types of offences in 1986–2015

Offence 1986 - 1990 1991 - 1995 1996 - 2000 2001 - 2005 2006 - 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
All offences 1) 65 51 51 56 61 59 60 58 57 57
Theft 25 17 14 16 18 17 16 15 15 14
Aggravated theft 39 29 40 41 38 34 38 38 28 34
Petty theft 78 70 67 58 57 57 56 56 55 55
Robbery 53 43 42 45 49 49 55 53 52 59
Damages to property 29 27 27 26 25 21 23 22 21 23
Attempted manslaughter, murder or killing 96 91 92 94 97 91 97 92 92 90
Assault 79 74 76 80 81 75 78 77 78 71
Aggravated assault 85 84 83 87 88 85 84 87 82 84
Petty assault 95 86 79 75 73 73 75 75 70 66
Rape 63 56 57 63 66 59 72 79 70 72
Sexual exploitation of a child 91 84 88 82 86 62 91 63 80 81
1) Excl. endangerment of traffic safety, hit-and-run, traffic infraction, violation of social welfare legislation on road traffic and motor vehicle infraction.

2.2 Persons suspected of offences

In all, 262,000 persons were suspected of the 236,500 offences solved in 2015. The same person can be a suspect of several different offences. In all, 18.6 per cent of such suspects were women. When calculating according to the most aggravated offence of a person (a person can be a suspect only one time during the year), 95,000 different persons were suspects. Thus, one person was a suspect of 2.5 offences, on average. Those guilty of endangerment of traffic safety or traffic infraction are not taken into account here.

The majority of suspects, 63.0 per cent, were suspects of only one offence in 2015. In all, 16.8 per cent were suspects of two offences. Of the suspects, 20.2 per cent were suspected of more than two offences.

Figure 7. Persons suspected by number of offences in 2015

Figure 7. Persons suspected by number of offences in 2015

In addition to the quantitative difference, the criminality of men and women differs in that women's shares of assaults, drunken driving and damages to property were small compared to men. However, the share of women suspected of assaults and drunken driving has grown from under ten per cent in 1980 to slightly under twenty per cent. Typical crimes for women were petty thefts, frauds, embezzlements and forgeries. The most common age for both a woman and man suspect was 20 years. The average age of suspected men was 32.6 years and that of women is 32.7 years.

Thirty per cent of persons suspected of solved offences were under the influence of some intoxicant. Of the suspects, 19.4 per cent were under the influence of alcohol, 8.3 of some other intoxicant and 2.3 per cent of alcohol and some other intoxicant. In offences against property, 14.2 per cent of suspects were under the influence of some intoxicant. In crimes against life and health, 47.0 per cent and in rapes, 38.0 per cent of suspects were under the influence of an intoxicant.

Table 4. Suspects of solved offences by age and sex in 2006–2015, share per 1,000 population

Gender/age group 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Total Total 54 58 58 56 56 56 52 51 48 48
Aged under 15 11 12 15 14 13 14 11 10 9 8
Aged 15-17 118 118 124 118 120 128 111 105 96 87
Aged 18-20 183 183 183 166 163 169 158 156 147 142
Aged over 20 54 59 58 57 57 56 53 52 50 50
Male Total 93 96 99 94 94 94 87 84 80 79
Aged under 15 15 18 23 19 18 20 15 14 13 12
Aged 15-17 190 192 202 187 185 197 173 162 151 136
Aged 18-20 297 302 300 267 264 273 257 253 234 229
Aged over 20 96 99 101 98 99 96 91 88 84 84
Female Total 17 21 19 19 19 20 18 18 17 17
Aged under 15 6 6 7 7 8 8 6 6 4 4
Aged 15-17 42 41 43 47 52 55 47 45 39 35
Aged 18-20 62 58 62 60 58 60 55 55 56 52
Aged over 20 16 22 18 18 18 18 18 18 17 18

In 2015, the share of young and under-age people - aged 21 or under - among all suspects was 19.3 per cent, having been 20.4 per cent one year earlier. The shares of young people were large for alcohol offences, robberies, damages to property and thefts of a motor vehicle. Of suspects of robberies, 37.0 per cent were young people and 37.4 per cent of suspects of damages to property. In all, 19.7 per cent of those suspected of assaults were young people.

2.3 Backgrounds of suspects

The average income subject to state taxation of suspects aged 15 or over belonging to the registered population (living permanently and temporarily in Finland and with a Finnish personal identity code) was around EUR 18,600, while the corresponding income in total population was about EUR 28,400. Income tax is paid to the state on both earned income and capital income. The corresponding median income was EUR 10,700 and EUR 23,600. Of the suspects, 29.5 per cent had an income of under EUR 5,000, while this was so for 10.2 per cent of the entire population. Among the suspects, 32.7 per cent had an income of at least EUR 20,000, while the share for the entire population was 57.1 per cent. All those whose income subject to state taxation is not known also belong to the group of under EUR 2,499. The figures given in this Section are calculated so that one person is a suspect only one time. The figures calculated here differ from the figures presented elsewhere in this publication where the same person can be a suspect several times during a year. Those guilty of endangerment of traffic safety or traffic infraction were not taken into account in the figures. The data on income subject to state tax of suspects are based on the National Board of Taxes' data in the tax database concerning income subject to state taxation from 2014. In the sections concerning total population, only people permanently resident in Finland were taken into consideration.

Table 5. Persons suspected of offences by sex and income (EURO) in 2015, aged 15 and over

Income/sex Total - 2,499 2,500 -4,999 5,000 -9,999 10,000 -19,999 20,000 -39,999 40,000 -79,999 80,000 and over
Income subject to state taxation Sex total Persons suspected 92,181 22,405 4,812 16,570 18,099 20,455 8,231 1,609
% 100.0 24.3 5.2 17.9 19.6 22.1 8.9 1.7
Men Persons suspected 72,517 17,742 3,818 12,690 13,393 16,204 7,198 1,472
% 100.0 24.4 5.2 17.4 18.4 22.3 9.9 2.0
Women Persons suspected 19,664 4,663 994 3,880 4,706 4,251 1,033 137
% 100.0 23.7 5.0 19.7 23.9 21.6 5.2 0.6
Disposable income Sex total Persons suspected 92,181 13,423 4,506 12,382 33,913 24,053 3,241 663
% 100.0 14.5 4.8 13.4 36.7 26.0 3.5 0.7
Men Persons suspected 72,517 10,714 3,706 10,277 26,120 18,290 2,800 610
% 100.0 14.7 5.1 14.1 36.0 25.2 3.8 0.8
Women Persons suspected 19,664 2,709 800 2,105 7,793 5,763 441 53
% 100.0 13.7 4.0 10.7 39.6 29.3 2.2 0.2

When viewed by disposable money income, the income level of those suspected of offences was higher. The median of the suspects' disposable income is 70 per cent of that of total population. With income subject to state taxation, the share is 45 per cent. Of the suspects, 19.3 per cent had an income of under EUR 5,000, while according to income subject to state taxation, this group included 29.5 per cent of the suspects. The respective figures for the whole population are 8.5 and 10.2 per cent. Disposable income of over EUR 20,000 was earned by 30.2 per cent of suspects and 51.4 per cent of total population. Disposable income = earned income + entrepreneurial income + property income + current transfers received - current transfers paid. Disposable income is a better measure than income subject to state taxation for describing the actual income of suspects.

Figure 8. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by income subject to state taxation and disposable income in 2015, aged 15 years and over

Figure 8. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by income subject to state taxation and disposable income in 2015, aged 15 years and over

Classified by main type of activity, 36.1 per cent of the suspects (belonging to the registered population aged 15 or over) were employed persons. Of all suspects, 20.2 per cent were unemployed and 14.1 per cent in the inactive population. Compared to the previous year, the share of employed has declined by 1.3 percentage points and the share of unemployed has increased by 2.2 percentage points. Of the whole population, 50.5 per cent were employed, 7.2 per cent unemployed and 4.0 per cent in the inactive population. Also among the entire population, the share of employed has declined by 1.1 percentage points and the share of unemployed has increased by 1.0 percentage points. The information on main type of activity is from 2013 so it may differ from the current situation.

Figure 9. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by main activity in 2015, aged 15 and over

Figure 9. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by main activity in 2015, aged 15 and over

Of suspects aged 15 or over, 50.0 per cent had completed only basic level education and 39.4 per cent had completed secondary level education. The respective figures for the whole population were 29.6 and 40.6 per cent. Both among suspects and the entire population, the share of persons with only basic level qualifications has declined slightly from the year before.

In Appendix tables 4 to 7, the same person can be a suspect several times. This is a common way to present the number of suspects of offences in the statistics. This produces a better view of criminality as a phenomenon and the backgrounds of the persons guilty of a particular offence can be described better.

2.4 Origin and foreign citizens

The number of persons suspected of the offences solved in 2015 by the police, customs and border guard was 262,000, of whom 31,800 were citizens of foreign countries. Compared to 2014, the number of all suspects decreased by 0.5 per cent, while the number of foreign citizens suspected went down by 3.9 per cent. The share of foreign nationals in all suspects was 12.1 per cent. The share of foreigners among suspects living permanently in Finland was 6.2 per cent. In 2015, Estonians (8,000) and Russians (6,100) made up the biggest group of foreign suspects. Of Estonian suspects, 43.5 per cent and 30.0 per cent of Russians had a permanent place of residence in Finland. Compared with the year before, the number of offences by Estonians increased by 1.7 per cent and those by Russians decreased by 16.9  per cent. Citizens of the former Soviet Union are also included in Russians.

The decrease in the number of foreign suspects is nearly fully explained by the drop in the number of Russian suspects. Compared to 2014, the number of Russians decreased by 1,250 (16.9 per cent). The number of Russians residing temporarily in Finland decreased by 21 per cent from the year before. In absolute numbers, the number of Russians decreased most in the region of South Karelia, where the number of Russian suspects declined by 630 compared with 2014.

Other countries where over 1,000 of its citizens were suspected were Iraq (1,900), Somalia (1,600), Romania (1,500) and Sweden (1,300). Of Romanians, only 8.8 per cent had a permanent place of residence in Finland. The respective percentages for Somalis and Iraqis were 92.6 and 61.0. Of Swedes, 61.8 per cent had a permanent place of residence in Finland. In 2014, there were 1,400 Iraqi suspects and 84.0 per cent of them were permanently living in Finland. One person can be guilty of many different offences during a year.

Figure 10. Foreign citizens suspected of offences by place of residence in Finland in 2009–2015

Figure 10. Foreign citizens suspected of offences by place of residence in Finland in 2009–2015

Among the offences solved in 2015, 47.9 per cent of the suspected foreign citizens were living permanently in Finland. The share was 1.5 percentage points higher than in 2014. Foreign suspects living in Finland were slightly younger than Finnish suspects were. Their average age was 31 years, while that of Finnish suspects was 32 years. Typical offences by foreigners living in Finland were theft, assault and narcotics offences, as well as driving a motor vehicle without a licence.

In the statistics, the same person can be a suspect several times. Data on the nationality of suspects and on whether they are permanently resident in Finland are based on the nationality data derived from the police and those selected by means of the personal identity code from the population data. The group "no permanent place of residence in Finland" is in that sense problematic, because it may include persons staying longer periods in Finland without applying for a permanent place of residence here. The group may also include persons suspected of a narcotics offence, for example, who have come to Finland only for the purpose of committing a crime. The number of foreign nationals differs somewhat from the figures reported by the police because the police also reports the nationality of the suspect in cases where the investigation is still ongoing. Only solved offences are included in Statistics Finland's figures.

Table 6. Suspects of solved offences living in Finland by age and nationality in 2015

Age group Suspects living permanently in Finland Share per 1,000 population in the age group
Finnish residents Foreign citizens Finnish residents Foreign citizens
-14 6,685 473 7.7 14.3
15-17 14,469 742 83.3 142.5
18-20 25,351 1,322 134.4 215.7
21-24 32,070 1,868 122.4 143.5
25-29 33,350 2,918 107.5 99.2
30-34 30,580 2,801 94.6 87.1
35-39 23,380 1,894 73.4 72.7
40-49 32,990 2,169 51.8 58.9
50-59 19,282 801 26.6 36.3
60-69 8,000 189 10.8 19.3
70- 2,331 34 3.3 5.7
Total 228,488 15,211 43.5 69.2
Origin of suspects

Of the 96,950 persons suspected of offences, 84,900 (87.6 per cent) were of Finnish background. There were 11,900 suspects with foreign background (12.3 per cent). The figures were calculated so that a person is a suspect only one time during the year, which means that this is not the "gross number" of suspects. In the whole population, 94.1 per cent are of Finnish background and 5.9 per cent of foreign background. Of suspects with Finnish background, 1,850 (2.2 per cent) had been born abroad. Of suspects with foreign background, 91.7 per cent had been born abroad. In the review, included are persons belonging to the registered population, that is, people with a Finnish personal identity code. Data on origin are from 2014, so the data on origin of good one hundred persons were unknown even though they had a Finnish personal identity code. Typically, these persons have moved to Finland in 2015.

Suspects born in Finland with Finnish background numbered 16.3 per 1,000 population with the same origin. In turn, the figure for foreign-born suspects with Finnish background was 38.0. Good one-half of foreign-born persons with Finnish background were born in Sweden. The share of Finnish-born suspects with foreign background per 1,000 population was 20.1 and that of foreign-born persons with foreign background was 40.0.

Table 7. Persons suspect of offences by origin and share per 1,000 population 2014–2015

Origin Suspected Share per 1,000 population
2014 2015 2014 2015
Origin total 99,473 96,951 18.2 17.7
Person with Finnish background total 87,446 84,906 17.0 16.5
–Person with Finnish background born in Finland 85,538 83,056 16.8 16.3
–Person with Finnish background born abroad 1,908 1,850 39.2 38.0
Person with foreign background total 12,025 11,931 37.3 37.0
–Person with foreign background born in Finland 790 991 16.0 20.1
–Person with foreign background born abroad 11,235 10,940 41.1 40.0
Origin unknown 2 114 . .

A person whose one or both parents were born in Finland is counted as having Finnish background. A person has foreign background if his or her both parents were born abroad. There are more of younger age groups and men among persons with foreign background compared with those with Finnish background. In all, 64.7 per cent of those with foreign background and 46.1 per cent of those with Finnish background are aged under 40.

More details about the origin of suspects by age group and sex is available in the appendix table. The figures are calculated so that one person is a suspect only one time. The figures calculated here differ from the figures presented elsewhere in this publication where the same person can be a suspect several times during a year.

If the number of suspects is calculated so that the same person can be a suspect of several crimes, the number of suspects with Finnish background was 223,500 (85.3 per cent of suspects). Of them, 216,000 were born in Finland and 7,550 abroad. Suspects with foreign background numbered 24,600 (9.4 per cent of suspects). Of persons with foreign background, 2,300 were born in Finland and 22,200 abroad. Among suspects, 0.1 per cent were of unknown origin and 13,700 (5.2 per cent) did not have population information. Population information is missing for tourists and those staying temporarily in the country, for example. Compared with 2014, the number of people with Finnish background decreased by 0.2 per cent and those with foreign background grew by 0.5 per cent. The number of persons in the group "no population information" decreased by 8.3 per cent.

In 2015, a person was suspect of an average of 2.7 solved offences. Persons with Finnish background born in Finland were suspects of 2.6 offences and person with Finnish background born abroad of 4.1 offences. Of persons with foreign background, those born in Finland were suspects of 2.4 offences and those born abroad of 2.0 offences.


Source: Statistics on offences and coercive measures 2015, Offences reported. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kimmo Haapakangas 029 551 3252, rikos@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma


Updated 22.3.2016

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Statistics on offences and coercive measures [e-publication].
ISSN=2342-9178. Reported offences, 1st quarter 2015, 2. Persons suspected of solved offences . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 25.10.2020].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/rpk/2015/13/rpk_2015_13_2016-03-22_kat_002_en.html