Concepts




Activities of multinational enterprises. Measures describing the activity and role of multinational enterprises in general, irrespective of whether it is financed by a foreign investor or not (cf. direct investment).

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In the Quality of Work Life Survey the respondents are inquired whether they have been absent from working life due to child care during their life.

This means generally a longer absence from work caused only by family leave, child home care leave or other child care - occasional, short absences are not included, such as a child falling ill. If the person has had several maternity leaves, the periods are added up.

Absence is also the time when in addition to child care the person has worked only occasionally or little (under 5 hours per week).

If the respondent has been on maternity or paternal leave or taken care of children direct after school/studies before starting paid employment, this time is also counted as absence from working life.

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In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools, acceptances and transfers to special education in 1995 to 2010 refer to pupils who have been accepted or transferred to special education due to disability, illness, delayed development, emotional disorder or other reason. Decisions about acceptances or transfers have been made by municipal administrative bodies and have required hearing of experts and parents, and drawing up of plans concerning the organisation of personal teaching. If necessary, subject syllabuses can have been individualised and reduced from those in general education. Duration of compulsory education can also have been extended where the pupil has not been to able reach the targets set for comprehensive school education within nine years.

From 2011 onwards, comprehensive school pupils accepted and transferred to special education have been considered equal to comprehensive school pupils having received special support.

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The variation of accident incidence risks prevailing in different industries or professional and other such groups can be measured by taking the number of accidents as a proportion to the number of hours worked in each branch. When this is done, the ratios gained can be regarded as the "risk figures" of a certain occupation or industry. In practice, accident proneness also varies within the same occupation or industry by task, for instance.

Accident frequency refers to the ratio of accidents and hours worked. The ratio is calculated per million hours worked. The frequency is used mainly in comparisons between different industries.

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The variation of accident incidence risks prevailing in different industries or occupational and other such groups can be measured by taking the number of accidents as a proportion to the number of employees in each branch. When this is done, the ratios gained can be regarded as the "risk figures" of a certain occupation or industry. In practice, accident proneness also varies within the same occupation or industry by task, for instance.

The accident incidence rate refers to the ratio of the number of accidents and employees. In accidents causing a disability of at least three days the ratio is calculated per 1,000 employees and in fatal accidents per 100,000 employees.

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Accommodation capacity consists of bedrooms and bed-places in accommodation establishments. A bedroom is a unit formed by one room or groups of rooms constituting an indivisible rental whole in an accommodation establishment (e.g. hotel) or a dwelling. A caravan pitch (provided with electric socket) equates to one accommodating unit.

A bed-place refers to a sleeping place for one person set up in an establishment. The number of bed-places indicates how many persons can be accommodated in an establishment at the same time. A bed-place applies to a single bed. A double bed is counted as two bed-places. For one caravan pitch 4 bed-places are counted.

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An accommodation establishment is an establishment (local kind-of-activity unit) providing overnight lodging for holiday spenders and other travellers in rooms or some other units. In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland, accommodation establishments are classified according to the standard industrial classification (TOL 2008) into hotels and similar establishments (guest houses), youth hostels, holiday villages and camping sites.

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Credits included in the outstanding credit for which usually a promissory note is a proof. Accounts re-ceivable from an employer enterprise or a real estate company belonging to the group are not included in the outstanding credit. If a promissory note is made for the accounts receivable, this is included in the outstanding credit.

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A period of time, usually a calendar year, from the bookkeeping of which an enterprise's financial statements are compiled. As of the statistical year 2001, the data for a statistical year are formed in the Register of Enterprises and Establishments from the accounting period that ends during the statistical year under review.

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Accrued interest and other expenses as well as deferred interest and other income, adjusted or supplemented on an accrual basis.

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Accrued interest and other income as well as prepaid interest and other expenses, adjusted or supplemented on an accrual basis.

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A party for whom punishment is sought in a court of justice on the basis of a suspected offence. The accused person can also be called the defendant.

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Activated repair costs refer to the costs arising from basic repairs or renovations that are not entered in the profit and loss account as expenditure for the accounting period. Activated repair costs are included in current assets and increase their value.

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Has visited the theatre and/or dance performances and/or concerts at least six times per year and/or went to see an opera at least three times and/or a movie at least once a month.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Has participated in a certain form of physical exercise hobby regularly approximately once a week for at least a couple of months in the past 12 months.

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Participates in some physical exercise hobby on at least three days per week.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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An action recorded in the time-use diary, which has afterwards been coded into a certain activity.

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The ratio of those in the active population to the population of the same age. The concept of labour force participation rate can also be used of the activity rate.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Actual final consumption consists of goods or services that are acquired by households, non-profit institutions serving households and general government for the direct satisfaction of human needs, whether individual or collective.

Some of the goods and services may be provided as social transfers in kind.
Actual final consumption of households comprises goods and services acquired by households themselves and goods and services obtained from non-profit institutions or general government as social transfers in kind. The latter includes health, educational and social services.

Actual final consumption of general government comprises collective services provided by general government for all members of a community or of a certain group. Examples of these are general administration, national defence and environmental protection.

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In the statistics on comprehensive school education and special education and in the statistics on adult education of educational institutions, additional education in comprehensive school refers to the optional additional class (10th class) of one year's duration available for young people having completed the syllabus of comprehensive school education. Pupils in additional education also include special support receiving pupils that are in extended compulsory education.

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Seasonal adjustment means the estimation of seasonal variation and the elimination of its impact from a time series. The obtained result is a seasonally adjusted time series. The trend of a time series is obtained when both seasonal variation and irregular random variation are eliminated from a time series. Trading or working day adjusted series are in turn obtained when the factors caused by the variation in the number of trading days or weekdays is eliminated from the observation of the original time series. The Tramo/Seats method is used for the seasonal adjustment of time series at Statistics Finland. In the Tramo/Seats method, preadjustment is based on a regression model (which allows for outlying observations, public holidays and the weekday structure) and the seasonal adjustment proper on an ARIMA model constructed for the time series.

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An adjustment for working days takes into account influences arising from the number of working days. This means giving consideration to lengths of months, numbers of weekdays and public holidays. Figures adjusted for working days are published for industries where variation in the number of working days has a significant impact on a time series. Compared to adjustment for trading days, adjustment for working days does not take into account the effect of different days of the week.

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A court that hears administrative judicial matters. General administrative courts include the Supreme Administrative Court and regional administrative courts.

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Most of the data for he Business Register are obtained from administrative files. The administrative data used by the Business Register are gathered from the administrative files of the Tax Administration and other public authorities, such as the Board of Patents and Registration, Board of Customs, State Treasury, Bank of Finland and the Local Government Pensions Institution.

The units for the Register of Enterprises and Establishments are primarily gathered from the Tax Administration's customer database (parties liable to pay value added tax on their business activity, employers, parties entered into the preliminary tax withholding register). Units of central government agencies are obtained from the State Treasury's agency register. Operating units of local government are obtained from the Local Government Pensions Institution's register.

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Prior to 1997, changes in the statutory order of succession were classified as adopted children in the population statistics, although no actual adoptions were made. From the 1997 statistics, only actual adoptions have been recorded as adoptions.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The respondent could self determine whether the training was connected with work or occupation or not.

Adult education was connected with the participant's work or occupation when the respondent took part in education to acquire knowledge or skills needed for the present or future work or occupation, to increase his or her income or to improve his or her general opportunities on the labour market.

Adult education was other than connected with the participant's work or occupation when the respondent participated in education for reasons having to do with personal, human relations, hobby or pastime or social considerations.

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A distinction was made, from the interviewee's viewpoint, between adult education connected with the participant's work or occupation and education pursued out of a general interest or with a hobby or pastime in mind, on the basis of the person's own statement of the purpose of participation.

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Advance polling stations include:
1) general advance polling stations in Finland laid down in a Decree
2) Finnish diplomatic missions set out by a decree
3) hospitals and prisons (institutions)
4) Finnish ships
5) a voter's residence (subject to certain preconditions).

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The valid and invalid ballots taken into account in the advance voting.

As a rule, advance votes are counted on the actual election day, Sunday, at 15.00 pm. The count may be advanced in large electoral districts; the earliest possible starting time is at 12 noon. The objective is to finish the counting of advance votes by 20.00 pm, from which time onwards advance data can be released.

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Advance voting is conducted in all general elections both in Finland and abroad. The Election Act (section 46, subsection 1) decrees that every enfranchised person is entitled to vote in advance in the general advance voting polling stations in Finland and in the Finnish diplomatic missions abroad. On election day an enfranchised person may vote only in the polling station of his/her own voting district. A voter need not give grounds for advance voting, but may freely choose between voting in advance or voting on the election day.

Advance voting commences on the 11th and ends on the 8th day before the election day both in Finland and abroad.

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The percentage of voters who voted in advance = their share of all voters.

In Statistics Finland statistics the share is calculated from all persons who voted. On the Ministry of Justice's Internet pages the percentage is calculated from all persons entitled to vote.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The age-specific death rate refers to the number of deaths per 1,000 of the mean population in the age group in question.

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The age-specific fertility rate indicates the number of live births per 1,000 women of the mean population in the age group in question.

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The age-specific marriage rate indicates the number of married women per 1,000 non-married women of the mean population in the age group in question.

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The age-specific remarriage rate indicates the number of second or higher order marriages contracted by women per 1,000 women that have previously been married in the age group in question.

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The change in mortality is described with the comparative mortality figure (CMF), which is a ratio of the age-standardised mortality rate. The standardisation is necessary so that changes in mortality not due to the ageing of the population structure can be highlighted. The age-standardised mortality rate indicates the number of deaths per 100,000 persons of the mean population, when the age structure is kept calculatorily unchanged during the whole reference period. In the publication on cause of death statistics, the European standard population as defind by Eurostat in 2012 has been used as the standard population in calculating age-standardised mortality rates.

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Agri-environmental aid is an environmental subsidy system funded by the government and the EU for reducing environmental burdening from agriculture, and promoting biodiversity and taking care of the cultivated landscape. The aid is mainly granted to crop growers and compensates the environmental protection expenditure they incur.

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Agricultural income is the sum of earned income and capital income from agriculture plus shares in business partnerships' earned income and capital income from agriculture.

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Agricultural environmental taxes in Finland comprise pesticide charge and fertiliser tax which was levied until 1994.

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An accident in which the driver of the vehicle of some party or a pedestrian has been proven (by a blood test or breathalyser reading exceeding 0.5 per mille) or is suspected on strong grounds to have been under the influence of alcohol at the time of the accident.

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Alcohol-related diseases include all diseases in the classification of diseases that are caused by alcohol (categories F10, G312, G4051, G621, G721, I426, K292, K70, K852, K860, O354, P043, Q860 in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ICD-10).

Accidental poisonings by alcohol are poisoning deaths caused by alcohol or a similar substitute (category X45).


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Ambient energy refers to energy extracted with heat pumps from the environment (ground, air or water) for space heating. Ambient energy is the difference between the heat produced by heat pumps and the electricity they consume. Electricity used by heat pumps in cooling use, as well as electricity used by heat pumps in heating use, are in this examination included in electricity consumption of heating.

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Ammonia is primarily generated from using fertilisers in agriculture. Ammonia causes eutrophication and acidification.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Annual change is the relative change of the index in comparison with the corresponding time period one year ago (e.g. annual change of total index of consumer prices, i.e. inflation).

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Annual contribution margin indicates the income financing available for investments and the paying of loan instalments after running costs have been covered. It is a key figure when evaluating the adequacy of income financing. The basic assumption is that income financing is adequate if the annual contribution margin is at least equal to the capital depreciations.

The depreciations indicate the average annual need for replacement investments. If the annual contribution margin covers depreciations (replacement investments), the municipality does not need to contract debts, realise capital assets or long-term investments or lower its working capital in order to keep the production system of services operational. If the annual contribution margin is negative, income financing does not even cover running costs.

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Annual expenditure comprises all expenditure items, i.e. operating costs and finance costs, in the profit and loss account before the annual contribution margin.

Annual profit - annual expenditure = annual contribution margin

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Annual profit comprises all profit, i.e. operating profit, production for own use, inventory of finished products, tax revenue, state subsidies and financing income, in the profit and loss account before the annual contribution margin.

Annual profit - annual expenses = annual contribution margin

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Annual repairs refer to costs entered as expenditure in the profit and loss accounts of housing companies.

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The sample-based monthly volume index is adjusted retrospectively (currently after about 18 months) against an annual volume index of industrial output. The annual volume index of industrial output is calculated by dividing changes in gross value by industry by a unit value index calculated with data from statistics on manufacturing commodities (volumes and values by establishment). The obtained Paasche's volume index is regarded as a substitute to value added at fixed prices.

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Mode of appeal against a decision of a court or an administrative authority that is not yet final.

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An appellant, where the mode of seeking reconsideration is by way of regular appeal.

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Applicant refers to a person who has applied for enforcement in order to recover a receivable. A receivable refers to the capital established in the grounds for enforcement, the interest to be calculated on the capital and the costs with interest judged in the grounds for enforcement. The applicant for enforcement can be a natural or legal person.

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Applicants to education within the joint application procedure system: in the joint application procedure of upper secondary general school and vocational education, applicants during the calendar year to education leading to a qualification.

Applicants to tertiary education: applicants to university of applied sciences education or university education during the calendar year.

In the statistics the applicants are counted so that one application is recognised from one person according to priority, level or field of education or some other variable (e.g. educational institution).

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Application for re-trial is a mode of appeal against a judgment by default. A defendant against whom a judgment by default has been issued has the right to appeal against the decision within 30 days of being served with it. In this event, the matter is taken up for a hearing, so that it can be dealt with in detail and all evidence can be admitted.

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In the statistics on vocational education, apprenticeship training refers to apprenticeship training leading to a vocational qualification. Apprenticeship training is a work-dominated form of studying in which the majority of vocational skills are learned at a workplace and then supplemented with theoretic knowledge studies, usually at an educational institution.

Apprenticeship training leads to the same initial vocational qualifications as vocational training organised in educational institutions. Further and specialist vocational qualifications can also be attained through apprenticeship training.

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Increases/decreases in the accumulated depreciation difference to be considered in determining taxable income, and increases/decreases in voluntary provisions deductible for tax purposes.

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In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools, the arrangement of teaching for pupils accepted or transferred to special education was in 2001 to 2010 as follows:
1. Teaching is arranged as general teaching: pupils study the syllabus according to the curriculum of general teaching.
2. Part of the syllabus has been individualised: pupils study less extensive, indi-vidualised syllabuses in one or more subjects.
3. All syllabuses have been individualised: pupils study less extensive, individualised syllabuses in all subjects.

From 2011 onwards, the concept "subject syllabuses" corresponds to the concept "arrangement of teaching in special education".

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In tourism statistics, an "arrival" is a statistical unit used to measure the volume of tourist/visitor flows. In accommodation statistics, arrivals refer to guest arrivals in accommodation establishments who check in to spend one or more nights in the establishment. 'Arrivals' also indicate the demand for accommodation services measured by the number of customers.

In the Border Interview survey (Frontier survey) or statistics collected by Frontier Guard officers, an 'arrival' refers to a visitor arrival at the national borders.

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According to the asset/liability principle, financial transactions included in direct investments are presented according to the data given in the balance sheet of the reporting entities either as assets from abroad or as liabilities to abroad. The asset/liability principle does not take into consideration reverse investments, which are included in direct investment according to the directional principle. Direct investments are recorded in the balance of payments according and international investment position to the asset/liability principle.

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With certain exceptions, taxpayers' monetary property is assets subject to taxation. Assets subject to taxation include real estate and means of transport, shares and certificates of participation, assets of enterprises, agriculture and forestry and share on corporate assets. Assets subject to taxation are not such as housing furnishings and deposits made on tax-free deposit accounts or accounts subject to withholding tax. Assets subject to taxation are valued according to the taxable value of property.

When debts and child deduction and deduction on one's permanent dwelling are subtracted from assets subject to taxation, we arrive at taxable property, which is the basis of taxation on wealth. Wealth tax is paid to the State.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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At nominal prices prevailing at each point.

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At prices prevailing in the base year or the reference year. It is a question of a volume series or a real series adjusted for price changes.

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Has visited one of the following cultural events at least once during a year: theatre, concert, opera, dance performance, film, festival.

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Audiovisual and related services comprise services related to the production of motion pictures on film or video, the production of radio and television programmes and musical recordings, fees received by producers, directors and actors, and fees paid on sales of distribution rights.

The item also includes fees paid to non-resident performers, directors etc. for theatrical and musical productions, sporting events, circuses and other similar events.

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The average maturity of new credits granted during the quarter, days.
The arithmetic mean of original maturities (agreed at the time of borrowing) of new credits granted during the quarter.

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Staff is classified into upper-level employees, lower-level employees and manual workers in accordance with the wage statistics nomenclatures of the Central Union of Business Employers and Statistics Finland, both of which distinguish between managers and other employees. The distinction between upper-level and lower-level employees is, however, ultimately determined by the firm's internal practice. Manual workers include porters, cleaners, janitors, maintenance men, cooks, chauffeurs etc.

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Average (in days) of maturities agreed at the time of granting of credits granted by small loan companies during a quarter weighted by the number of credits granted during the quarter.

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The average size of dwellings is obtained by dividing the total floor area of dwellings by their number.

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