# Statistics on offences and coercive measures: documentation of statistics

29.11.2023 valid documentation

## Basic data of the statistics

### Data description

The statistics on offences and coercive measures focus on describing the regional distributions of crime and the use of coercive measures by the police, customs and border guard.
As regards offences, the statistics describe offences known to the police, customs and border guard. In addition to the numbers of offences reported, the statistics also describe the number of solved offences and the number of persons suspected of the solved offences. Age, sex, nationality and some socio-economic background factors are given of the suspects. The statistics also contain data on the victims of some offences and on domestic violence.
The statistics describe only offences for which a report, a fine order, a notice on a summary penal order has been made or for which a petty fine has been issued. A majority of offences remain hidden, in other words they are not known or reported as offences. The numbers of offences recorded are influenced, for example, by changes in supervision, legislation and citizens' willingness to report offences to the police.

### Statistical population

The statistics are formed from cases recorded as an offence in the police information system (PATJA). The coercive measures data are also from the same PATJA system.

### Statistical unit

The statistical unit used is an offence. If several persons have taken part in the same offence together, the number of offences recorded is one. If several similar offences are committed at the same time, several of these offences can be recorded.
The main rule is that persons are presented in the statistics as many times as they are suspected of an offence (gross number of persons). However, victims of crimes are presented only one time per offence.

### Unit of measure

Number of offences.
Number of persons.
Number of coercive measures.

### Reference period

Quarterly data describing the offences recorded are drawn from the police PATJA system within five days from the end of a quarter and the data are completed during the month following the statistical reference period.
The basic data of the annual statistics on offences known are drawn from the police PATJA system at the beginning of April following the statistical reference year. The results are completed during May.
The data on coercive measures are drawn from the police PATJA system at the beginning of February following the statistical reference year. The results are completed during February to March.

### Reference area

The statistics cover offences investigated and coercive measures taken by the police, customs and border guard in Finland.
For offences, the data are reported according to the division of municipalities concerning the latest statistical year based on the municipality where the offence occurred. Coercive measures are reported by police department and the customs and border guard specified.

### Sector coverage

The statistics cover offences investigated and coercive measures taken by the police, customs and border guard in Finland.

### Time coverage

Annual data on offences are available on the websites from 1980 onwards. Monthly data are available from 2009. Statistics on offences have been compiled since 1927. These older publications can be found digitised in the Doria service.
Data on coercive measures are available from 2004 onwards.

### Frequency of dissemination

The statistics on offences are published quarterly. The quarterly data supplied to Statistics Finland become revised during the statistical reference year as the police investigation progresses.
The data on coercive measures describe the situation at the time of sampling and do not become revised. The section on domestic violence and intimate partner violence is published once a year and the background offence data are not revised.

## Concepts

### Burglary

Theft, aggravated theft or petty theft committed by means of unlawful intrusion

### Coercive measure

Coercive measures are often divided into three groups: those against a person, those against property and coercive measures ordered by a court of justice. Coercive measures ordered by a court of justice are indicated in the statistics by the letter O after the acronym of the coercive measure. Telecommunications interception, traffic data monitoring and technical surveillance (Section 5a of the Coercive Measures Act 646/2003) are not included in these statistics.
Some of the cases entered in statistics as coercive measures, such as restraining orders and business prohibitions are of the warrant-type (warrants of apprehension), which lead to actions, should they be violated.
Coercive measures are provided for in the Coercive Measures Act (806/2011). In addition, apprehension is provided for in the Police Act (so-called apprehension based on the Police Act). Coercive measures against foreign nationals in special circumstances (e.g. formalities in connection with entry into the country or refugee status) are provided for in the Aliens Act.
The grounds for the coercive measure, the legal general grounds for the coercive measure (one or more) are recorded in the coercive measure decision.
Coercive measures against a person's liberty may also rest on special grounds (one or more). One typical instance of special grounds is that there is reason to fear that the person suspected of being guilty absconds.
Statistics Finland does not compile statistics on covert coercive measures, such as coercive measures affecting telecommunications or coercive measures of the surveillance type.

### Complainant

In the statistics on coercive measures, the complainant is not necessarily the actual victim of the offence. A person deceased as a result of an offence or an event leading to an investigation is recorded in the PATJA system sometimes as other than the complainant and the beneficiaries of the deceased person are recorded as the complainant. In offences against minors, the guardian of the actual victim is also usually recorded as the complainant.

### Custody period

The custody period is the period of time a person is apprehended, arrested or remanded on the basis of a coercive measure. The days of apprehension or arrest are counted in hours and the days of remand on the basis of dates.

### Hidden crime

An offence which is not reported to the police and hence not registered as an offence.

### Most aggravated offence

The most aggravated offence, or the so-called principal offence, committed by the suspect during the statistical year. The degree of seriousness of an offence is determined on the basis of the sentence given for an offence, for example.

### Offence known to the authorities

A matter recorded in the police information system as an offence. The offence may have become known to the police, customs or border guard either as a report or in connection with another investigation. The offence is recorded in the statistics for the year in which it becomes known to the authorities. An offence refers to an act for which a punishment is decreed in legislation. The task of the police, customs and border guard is to investigate the offence, conduct a pre-trial investigation and transfer the solved offence to the prosecutor for consideration. In more lenient cases, the offence may be left unreported to the prosecutor on the grounds laid down in law. The statistical unit used is an offence. If several persons have taken part in the same offence together, the number of offences recorded is one. If several similar offences are committed at the same time, several of these offences can be recorded. The offence is recorded based on the municipality where the offence occurred. The offence may also have taken place abroad and a report of it is recorded if the police, customs or border guard have jurisdiction in the matter and the offence has concerned (as a suspect or victim) a Finnish citizen, a person permanently resident in Finland or a Finnish legal person.

### Offences reported to the prosecutor

The task of the police, customs and border guard is to investigate the offence, conduct a pre-trial investigation and transfer the solved offence to the prosecutor for consideration. In more lenient cases, the offence may be left unreported to the prosecutor on the grounds laid down in law.

### Parking fine

A fine imposed for breaking prohibitions and limitations on the stopping and parking of vehicles and provisions on the use of a parking disc. Such a fine can also be imposed on grounds of unnecessary idling of motor vehicles.
These fines are imposed by the police or if the municipality is responsible for supervision, also by municipal parking inspectors or their assistants. A parking offence for which a parking fine or a caution has been imposed is not registered as an offence.

### Percentage of offences solved

This figure indicates how many per cent of all offences which became known during a statistical year are solved offences. Therefore, the figure may be higher than 100.

### Solved offence

An offence known to the authorities (police, customs or border guard) is regarded as solved when the circumstances in which the offence was committed, the parties involved as well as other factors necessary for making the decision on bringing charges and for the trial have been clarified. The decision is made by the officer in charge of the pre-trial investigation.

### Suspect

Person suspected of an offence. The decision on suspicion and recording is made by the police (or an investigator of the customs or border guard). Only suspects of solved offences are taken into consideration in the statistics.
The main rule is that persons are presented in the statistics as many times as they are suspected of an offence (gross number of persons). The statistical unit used is an offence. If several persons have taken part in the same offence together, the number of offences recorded is one.
If a person commits a series of offences or several similar offences, the number of suspects is calculated based on the offences in this series.
The database tables present the numbers of suspects with three different calculation methods: Suspects of solved offences (or total number), number of suspected offences and according to the principal offence rule/the most aggravated offence.

### Victim

If the injured party is also the victim of an offence, a separate entry is made of this into the PATJA system. At the moment, it is obligatory to record victim data only in attempted homicides, assaults and other crimes against life or health, sexual offences, human trafficking offences and in some offences of Chapter 25 of the Criminal Code.

## Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

### Overall accuracy

The data are mainly recorded manually in the PATJA system and there are many recorders, so user-based random or systematic input errors are possible despite common recording instructions.

### Timeliness

Quarterly data describing the offences recorded are drawn from the police PATJA system within five days from the end of a quarter and the data are completed during the month following the statistical reference period.
The basic data of the annual statistics on offences known are drawn from the police PATJA system at the beginning of April following the statistical reference year. The results are completed during May.
The data on coercive measures are drawn from the police PATJA system at the beginning of February following the statistical reference year. The results are completed during February to March.

## Comparability

### Comparability - geographical

The statistics cover offences investigated by the police, customs and border guard in Finland. Comparison of data between countries is difficult because the legislation of different countries differs from one another in respect of criminal offences. In addition, the statistical practices of different countries differ from one another. Statistics Finland removes from the statistics such reports of offences which are already reported and cases where it is found that no offence has taken place. In Sweden, for example, all cases reported to the system are included in the statistics, even if it turns out later that there has been no offence.
The International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) facilitates comparisons to some extent, but its use is currently in the development phase.

### Comparability - over time

The regional classification valid at the time of publication is used in the statistics.
The regional classification used for coercive measures is the classification of police departments valid at the time of publication. The number of police departments decreased from 90 to 24 at the beginning of 2009. After the 2014 police department reform, there are 12 police departments.
Amendments to legislation make comparisons difficult between different years and types of offences.
The statistics describe the numbers of individual offences. Large series of offences may, when revealed, cause an increase of dozens, in some cases even thousands, of offences in the statistics. In the following year, the figures usually go back to the same level as before. The problem is highlighted when making regional comparisons of relatively rare offences on the development of offences.
Changes in the calculation bases of the number of offences also make it difficult to compare the number of offences in different years. As the basis for calculating the number of frauds changed in 1991, the change did not affect only the number of frauds but the comparability of the total number of offences with previous years also became more difficult.
The numbers of offences recorded are influenced, for example, by changes in police supervision, legislation and citizens' willingness to report offences to the police.
Since 1954, data have also been published on customs offences in connection with the statistics on offences known to the police, customs and border guard.

From the beginning of 2010, offences recorded by the customs and border guard were also included in the figures. These data are presented from the beginning of 2009. The change increased the number of all offences by around two per cent. Narcotics offences grew by six to eight per cent due to the change.
The figures concerning endangerment of traffic safety in late 2012 and early 2013 are not fully comparable, as it was found that excessive speeding detected by automatic traffic control towards the end of 2012 was recorded in early 2013.
Statistics on coercive measures have been compiled in a similar manner since 2002.
Changes in legislation also make it difficult to compare coercive measures between different years and types of coercive measures. For example, the legislation on the extraction of DNA profiles included in personal examinations was amended as of the beginning of 2004 (Act on the Processing of Personal Data by the Police 761/2003 and Coercive Measures Act 646/2003). The change resulted in the extraction of DNA profiles becoming a standard routine. The number of coercive measures may be influenced, for example, by changes in police criminal investigation practices or custody of intoxicated persons.
OFFENCE:
The new Road Traffic Act (267/81) entered into force on 1 April 1982. The act was applied in the statistics from the beginning of the year. Due to the legislative amendment, the figures did not correspond with the numbers of previous years in different types of traffic offences.
The Fixed Petty Fine Act (66/1983) and the Act on Fixed Petty Fines in Road Traffic (68/83) entered into force on 1 September 1983. According to the Act, a fixed petty fine may be issued for an infringement of the Road Traffic Act (267/81) or the provisions and regulations issued on the basis of it if the violation is considered to have caused only minor danger or harm.
Petty fines issued by the police from 1 September 1983 onwards are included in the statistics.
The statistical practice of embezzlement offences was changed starting from 1983 so that embezzlement offences involving several acts are recorded as one offence.
On 1 January 1991, the Act on the amendment of the Criminal Code (769/90) concerning offences against property and trading and financial offences entered into force. The change was the first stage of the overall reform of the Criminal Code, and it also included such basic changes that comparability with earlier years broke for certain categories of offences. New offence headings were added, and in part the contents of the headings that remained the same also changed. Problematic in this respect are offences related to the unauthorised use of movable goods, of which especially so-called thefts of motor vehicles, fraud and means of payment fraud offences and forgery offences. Comparability with previous years was maintained for other general offences against property. The data content of the statistics was changed to correspond with the revised legislation. The practice of compiling statistics on means of payment frauds changed in 1991. The change decreased the number of recorded offences.
Due to the revision of the legislation on unity of offences (697/91), the concept of an offence committed with a single act was not taken into account in the statistics starting from the beginning of 1992. With a few exceptions, offences committed with a single act had been before recorded only according to the main offence. The main offence refers to the offence for which the punishment laid down in law is the most severe. The change in the statistical method somewhat increased the number of offences recorded.
The new regulations concerning narcotics offences entered into force on 1 January 1994. They form Chapter 50 of the Criminal Code. Due to the legislative amendment, only the total numbers of narcotics offences are comparable with the corresponding figures of previous years. Although the statistical practice did not change as a result of the legislative amendment, the compilation of statistics on narcotics offences in 1994 was somewhat inconsistent in the police districts. Around ten per cent more narcotics offences than in reality are estimated to have been recorded. On 1 September 1994, new regulations concerning driving while intoxicated entered into force. The blood alcohol limit for aggravated driving while intoxicated fell from 1.5 to 1.2 per mil. Due to the legislative amendment, only the total numbers of cases of driving while intoxicated are comparable with previous years. A new limit for driving while intoxicated in water transport was fixed to one per mil instead of the previous 1.5 per mil.
On 1 September 1995, the Act on the amendment of the Criminal Code (578/95) entered into force. The effects of the revision of the crime nomenclature on the comparability of data with previous years were minor.
The following shows the correspondence of the new heading with the previously used heading:

- Manslaughter -- > Manslaughter
- Manslaughter -- > Killing
- Attempted manslaughter or murder --> Attempted manslaughter, murder or killing
- Infanticide -- > Infanticide
- Negligent homicide -- > Negligent homicide, grossly negligent homicide
- Negligent bodily injury -- > Negligent bodily injury, grossly negligent bodily injury
- Arson -- > Criminal mischief, criminal traffic mischief, aggravated criminal mischief
- Attempted arson -- Attempted criminal mischief, attempted criminal traffic mischief, attempted aggravated criminal mischief
However, crime headings related to criminal mischief and arson are not fully comparable. In addition to arson, criminal mischief also includes cases previously belonging to other headings.
The new Alcohol Act (1143/94), which entered into force on 1 January 1995, caused changes to the classification of offences. The heading ‘consumption of an alcoholic substance in a public place’ was removed. Statistics compilation on narcotics offences in 1995 was somewhat inconsistent in the police districts.

In 1996, the following new headings were introduced: military offences, employment offences, environmental offences, violation of certain intangible rights. The age distribution of suspected women and the scene of homicides and assaults are presented as new data.
From 1997 onwards, information is given on the nationality of the suspected person.
The new regulations on offences against the administration of justice, the public authority and public order, as well as sex offences entered into force on 1 January 1999. They form Chapters 15, 16, 17 and 20 of the Criminal Code. On 1 October 1999 new regulations concerning traffic offences entered into force in Chapter 23 of the Criminal Code. The crime headings in the table are grouped according to the new legislation. The offences against the Criminal Code presented here include offences previously included in the Road Traffic Act.
On 1 April 2000 the statistical practice of certain types of offences was changed. Invasions of premises (Chapter 24 of the Criminal Code) are recorded so that a series of incidents involving several acts is recorded as one offence. Similarly, breaches of the sanctity of the grave and violations of a restraining order are recorded in the statistics. The latter are included in the offence group ‘offences against the administration of justice, the public authorities and public order ’.
On 1 September 2001, a new regulation on narcotics offences entered into force. The offence category unlawful use of narcotics was added to the crime classification.
New regulations on stealing of a motor vehicle for temporary use entered into force on 1 October 2002. Two new headings were added to the crime classification: stealing of a  motor vehicle for temporary use, petty stealing of a motor vehicle for temporary use and aggravated stealing of a motor vehicle for temporary use. Previously, these offences were recorded as unauthorised uses of a motor vehicle.
On 1 January 2003, motor vehicle infraction was introduced as a new offence.
The new Public Order Act entered into force on 1 October 2003. Breaches of the Public Order Act were added to the crime classification.
From 2003 onwards, information is given on the intoxicant used by the suspect in connection with driving while intoxicated.
Starting from 2004, information is presented on the intoxicant used by the suspect: combined use of other intoxicant and alcohol (mixed use). Previously, these were presented in the section under the influence of other intoxicant.
On 1 January 2004, breaches of the Public Order Act were introduced as a new crime heading. Ordinance infraction, violation of a police regulation, were removed from the nomenclature.
Chapter 41 of the Criminal Code on weapons offences entered into force on 1 June 2007. These offences are included in the revised offence heading offences against Chapters 41, 42 and 43 of the Criminal Code. The change does not affect the total number of offences.
Chapter 50a of the Criminal Code on alcohol offences and the amendment to the Alcohol Act entered into force on 1 November 2009, new offence headings were alcohol offence, aggravated alcohol offence, petty alcohol offence and alcohol violation. Due to the legislative amendment, only the total number of alcohol offences and alcohol violations is comparable with previous years.
In 2010, the statistical practice of theft offences through unlawful breaking in to the dwelling was changed. Since 2009, theft offences against free-time residences and other dwellings are presented as separate information.

In 2010, information describing the scene of crime was added for the following offences: robbery offences, damages to property, attempted manslaughter, murder or killing, and rapes. The data are presented starting from the beginning of 2009.
In August 2013, acts on the preparation of offence against life or health of another, on the preparation of aggravated robbery and on the preparation of the taking of a hostage entered into force.
Stalking was criminalised starting from 1 January 2014.
On 1 September 2014, Chapter 20 (sex offences) of the Criminal Code was revised. The punishment scale of offences was increased and Chapter 20, Section 3 (coerced sexual intercourse) was repealed. Sexual harassment, Chapter 20, Section 5a, was added to the Act.
On 4 September 2015, identity theft was added to the Criminal Code (Criminal Code, Chapter 38, Section 9a).
Aggravated rape of a child was added to the Criminal Code on 15  April 2019 (Criminal Code, Chapter 20, Section 7b)
A revised grouping of offences was introduced at the beginning of 2019.
A Offences against property
B Crimes against life and health
C Sex offences
D Offences against the administration of justice, the public authorities and public order
L Traffic offences
M Other offences against the Criminal Code
N Offences against other acts and decrees
The structure of the crime nomenclature was also changed:
Other offences against the Criminal Code category (M) consists of offences against the Criminal Code not belonging to groups A to L.
Endangerment of traffic safety, flights from the scene of a traffic accident, traffic infractions, violations of social welfare legislation on road traffic and motor vehicle infractions, as defined outside the Criminal Code, belong to category N. This category also includes other offences defined outside the Criminal Code.
The aim of the revision is to improve the comparability of offences between different years and enhance their international comparability.

The Road Traffic Act was amended on 1 June 2020, and as a result, an administrative sanction is imposed for certain traffic infractions instead of a fine. For this reason, the number of traffic infractions in the statistics on offences has declined considerably. This also impairs the comparability of offences and infractions total against older years.

The legislation on sexual offences was amended at the beginning of 2023. Offences in accordance with the new legislation are recorded in the statistics under their own headings. Headings in accordance with the old legislation are also still used in the compilation of the statistics. Old headings are indicated with (-2022).

COERCIVE MEASURES:
Coercive measures concerning search of data contained in a device and search of premises entered into force at the beginning of 2014. The introduction of these coercive measures had a decreasing effect on the numbers of used house searches and confiscations.
At the beginning of 2016, a coercive measure came into force for the detention of foreigners.
From 2009, only the total numbers of confiscations related to bodily searches and house searches are given. A more detailed classification of the coercive measures in question is not available. For definitional reasons, the number of detentions based on the Police Act is not fully the same as the number of persons taken into custody while intoxicated presented in the statistics on offences reported.

The numbers of examinations of state of intoxication made with a blood test had been deficiently recorded into the system during 2009 to 2010. This deviation of several thousand cases must be taken into account when comparing the total numbers of coercive measures. The figure for 2010 was only 975, whereas it should have been closer to the figure for 2011, which was 8,323.
Data on coercive measures decided by courts are available from the court statistics until the statistics for 2013.

### Coherence - cross domain

The police, customs and border guard publish their own statistical releases, the figures of which may differ slightly from those of Statistics Finland. Several reasons for this:
1.    Differences in data selection times: Statistics Finland’s data for earlier years are not updated in connection with the publication of the new statistical reference year. The other actors retrieve data from the continuously updated data warehouse.
2.    Differences in processing rules: for example, whether unfounded notices of offences are removed from total numbers.

## Source data and data collections

### Source data

The source register for the statistics is the police information system PATJA.
Data on municipal parking supervision are collected with a web questionnaire.

### Data collection

TietoEvry is responsible for delivering the data on offences and coercive measures to Statistics Finland. TietoEvry draws the data from PATJA and transfers them as sequential files to Statistics Finland's server.
Data on municipal parking supervision are collected with a Webropol inquiry.

### Frequency of data collection

Data on offences are drawn quarterly and as a separate annual selection with a larger data content.
Data on coercive measures are drawn yearly.
Data on municipal parking supervision are collected once a year.

## Methods

### Data compilation

The data are not weighted or adjusted. The background information on persons, such as age, sex and so on is compared with Statistics Finland's registers primarily based on these register data. If the person does not have a personal identity code, the information in the data is used.
The domestic violence and intimate partner violence data were formed based on register data of offences recorded by the police. Information about domicile, family status and children, parents, spouses and registered partners from Statistics Finland's data has been combined to the victim and suspect in the police Patja system of crime reporting data. It has been established whether the victim and suspect are cohabiting based on family status and domicile data. The register data are from the statistical reference year. For married couples, comparisons are made between the date when the offence took place and the date when the marriage was entered into and the date of divorce.  The data also take into consideration cases where the victim and suspect have been cohabiting in the year preceding the statistical reference year. An examination of whether the victim and suspect have a common child has been added to the statistical data. If the victim and suspect are a cohabiting or married couple or a former married or cohabiting couple they are primarily included in these categories and only then do we examine whether the victim and suspect have a common child. Starting from 2020, cohabiting partners are sought for five previous years. Earlier, only the previous year was examined. The time series has been revised retrospectively and for this reason the figures have changed slightly.
Starting from 2015, we have also considered whether the victim and suspect have lived in the same dwelling in any month during the statistical reference year. We have formed cohabiting couples of those living in the same dwelling if both are aged over 18, are of opposite sexes and their age difference is under 16 years. All offences that were reported in the statistical reference year are included, so the offence may have taken place in an earlier year. In addition to sexual offences in Chapter 20 of the Criminal Code and offences against life and health in Chapter 21, offences related to domestic violence and intimate partner violence include deprivation of personal liberty (Criminal Code, Chapter 25, Sections 1 to 2), menace (Chapter 25, Section 7), stalking (Chapter 25, Section 7a), coercion (Chapter 25, Section 8) and trafficking in human beings (Chapter 25, Section 3). In addition, robberies (Chapter 31, Section 1) and extortions (Chapter 31, Section 3) are included.

### Data validation

The quality of the data is monitored by comparing them with the data of the previous quarter/year and by viewing changes. Sometimes large series of offences that hamper annual comparisons become known to the authorities. Likewise, any legislative amendments make comparisons difficult. If major changes occur in the data but no significant changes have taken place in legislation, the producers of the data are asked about possible changes.

## Principles and outlines

### Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

### Contact organisation unit

Social Statistics

### Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics.

Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.

Further information: Statistical legislation

### Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable.

Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

### Confidentiality - data treatment

Statistics Finland has specified its data protection practices related to statistics on offences and coercive measures. Statistics Finland discontinues the publication of data on offences referred to in Chapters 12 and 13 of the Criminal Code in the statistics on offences and coercive measures starting from the data for the statistical reference year 2023. Data are not removed from releases published prior to 2023. Statistics Finland releases data on the offences referred to in Chapters 12 and 13 of the Criminal Code concerning solved offences in future as well.
The police harmonise their data with that of Statistics Finland in their own statistical releases.
The decision is based on Section 16 of the Statistics Act, which states that Statistics Finland's right to collect data by virtue of the data supply obligation provided for in Sections 14 and 15 does not apply to confidential data relating to international relations, public safety, defence and national security or to confidential official documents as referred to in Section 6, Paragraph 24, Sub-paragraphs 2, 3 and 9 of the Act on the Openness of Government Activities.

Access to statistical data is restricted only to persons who necessarily need them. The aim is to keep the classification of tables in the statistics at a less detailed level in order to create as few small cell frequencies as possible, but crime is such a topic that in general special interest focuses on these small cell frequencies. As a rule, efforts are made to present the most sensitive data only on the level of the whole country.
The formation of research data is made in cooperation with Statistics Finland's research services.

### Release policy

Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service.

Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland

### Data sharing

Statistics Finland delivers a statistical report to the police, customs and border guard quarterly.

### Accessibility and clarity

Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.

In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.

Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.

Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.

### Data revision - policy

Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.

The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.

Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.

### Quality assessment

The OSF quality criteria and recommendation on quality description are applied in the production of the statistics.

### Quality assurance

Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The frameworks complement each other. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.

Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

### User access

Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published.

Further information: Publication principles for statistics

Unless otherwise separately stated in connection with the product, data or service concerned, Statistics Finland is the producer of the data and the owner of the copyright. The terms of use for statistical data.

Revision release

Revision release

Revision release

## Statistical experts

Service email
rikos@stat.fi
Kimmo Haapakangas
Senior Statistician
029 551 3252

The documentation released before 5.4.2022 can be found on the archive pages of the statistics.

Go to the archive page