Production of electricity and heat: documentation of statistics
Basic data of the statistics
Unit of measure
Fuel consumption in electricity and heat production is published in terajoules and as a percentage share of total fuel consumption.
The change from the previous year as percentages is also published for all data.
The coverage of separate electricity production, combined heat and power production and the fuels included in them is very good (around 100%).
In terms of separate heat production, the data are not entirely exhaustive: small producers of heat, for example, in industry and municipalities are missing from the data. In addition, households’ and public services’ (e.g. schools) own boilers are missing completely from the statistics.
The data are final, but some small corrections or specifications will occasionally occur in the fuel data, for example.
Frequency of dissemination
Combined heat and power production
Renewable energy sources
Separate heat production
Separate production of electricity
Total energy used
Accuracy, reliability and timeliness
The reported production of district heat does not cover all small municipalities, but the total margin of error (the difference between the reported and actual total production) has been estimated to be at most one to two per cent of total production. The error in the reported data is of the same magnitude as in the production of electricity.
The coverage is not as good in the production of industrial heat as in district heat. The error in the reported data can be slightly bigger than in district heat, because the production of industrial heat is not necessarily measured, except for sold industrial heat. Statistical bias may arise in the production of industrial heat, because it may sometimes be difficult to separate the production of industrial heat from the final consumption of fuels in manufacturing. This is not a problem for sold industrial heat but in order to avoid bias, industrial heat produced by manufacturing for own use should be examined together with total energy use in manufacturing: Energy use in manufacturing.
Data revision - practice
Comparability - geographical
In international statistics, only sold heat and related fuels are reported in heat production. Heat produced for own use in manufacturing is not reported, but the fuels related to it are included in energy use in manufacturing. In corresponding statistics in Finland, heat produced by manufacturing in the transformation sector is recorded as heat production and corresponding fuels as input in the transformation sector.
The export and import volumes of electricity can be compared reflected against Estonia, Sweden, Norway and Russia. The quantities are measured, so there are no major differences between them. Deviations may be caused by transmission loss due to the geographical location of the measurements: electricity exported from Finland to Sweden is measured in Finland, but Sweden measures the same electricity imported from Finland in Sweden.
Comparability - over time
Coherence - cross domain
Finnish Energy’s statistics on the production of electricity are fully coherent with Statistics Finland's corresponding set of statistics. There are minor differences in details of the distribution of electricity production with regard to electricity produced in connection with industrial and district heat production.
The district heating statistics of Finnish Energy cover only district heating and related fuels of member companies/corporations of said organisation. Statistics Finland's production of district heat also includes production and fuel data of several dozen smaller heating plants.
Emissions caused by energy production form a central part of the GHG inventory. Emissions from production of electricity and heat form a significant part of the inventory. The statistics on production of electricity and heat are fully coherent with the GHG inventory concerning emissions caused by fuel consumption in the production of electricity and heat.
Coherence - internal
Source data and data collections
Frequency of data collection
Cost and burden
Imputation and comparison of data between fuel data from different sources are carried out either in separate files, which contain plant-specific data on fuels from Finnish Energy, the Energy Authority’s emissions trading data and the environmental administration’s YLVA database or in the production database by manual comparison. As a result of the comparison, possible necessary specifications and imputations are made manually to the production database.
Once the data have been benchmarked and validated, a database cube is made from which the necessary aggregated data are obtained for the StatFin tables, the Energy Statistics table service and international reporting.
Comparison and benchmarking of fuel consumption with Statistics Finland's GHG inventory data is an essential part of quality assurance. This benchmarking is made by comparing plant-specific data and finally in terms of total consumption fuel-specifically.
Imputation rate / A7
Documentation on methodology
Principles and outlines
Contact organisation unit
Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics.
Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.
Further information: Statistical legislationThe statistics belong to the Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) and to the European Statistical System (ESS).
The obligation to provide data is statutory and based on the Statistics Act (280/2004, Section 14) according to which practitioners of trade are obliged to provide Statistics Finland with such data that are necessary for the compilation of statistics. The Regulation on energy statistics (2008/1099/EC) obliges Statistics Finland to report data, of which the statistics on production of electricity and heat are an important part, to the EU.
Statistics Finland is obliged to report energy statistics to the IEA, which is an organisation within the OECD framework.
Confidentiality - policy
The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable.
Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
Confidentiality - data treatment
The data of the statistics are not released outside Statistics Finland in identifiable form. Use of the data for scientific research and statistical surveys is possible only on the basis of a separate application for licence to use statistical data and in unidentifiable form.
Further information about user licences.
Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics FinlandThe data are published annually at the turn of October and November. The principle is that the data must be as final as possible and benchmarked, e.g. with the data of the GHG inventory.
The calendar is updated on weekdays. Statistics Finland's release calendar for the coming year is published every year in December.
Finnish Energy has a statistical cooperation agreement with Statistics Finland, according to which Finnish Energy collects data on electricity production and district heating activity and submits them to Statistics Finland.
In addition, data on some smaller heating plants are obtained from the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities or Finnish Energy’s statistics on district heating.
Finnish Energy publishes statistics on electricity production and district heating. Coherence of the data with the data published by Statistics Finland is ensured by regular contact.
Comparison data for fuel data are available, for example, from the Natural Resources Institute Finland (wood fuels), the Energy Authority (emissions trading data) and the environmental administration’s YLVA database.
The data obtained from the Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE) are used to specify the use data on wood fuels obtained from other sources and, on the other hand, LUKE's data can be supplemented and specified with Statistics Finland's data. This coordinated cooperation ensures the coherence of LUKE's and Statistics Finland's data.
The data of the Energy Authority, the environmental administration and Finnish Energy are not only used to specify energy statistics but also in the greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. By plant-specific comparison, the fuel data estimated to be the most reliable for each plant are selected in cooperation with the GHG inventory if the data obtained from different sources differ from one another. This procedure ensures the coherence of data released by energy statistics and the GHG inventory.
Accessibility and clarity
Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.
In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.
Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.
Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.The results of the statistics on production of electricity and heat are published in the Energy series of the Official Statistics of Finland. The home page of the statistics contains, for example, a description of the statistics, concepts and definitions.
The definitions of fuels can be found in Statistics Finland's fuel classification.
In addition to StatFin tables, the data are also published in Statistics Finland's energy statistics table service.
Eurostat and the IEA publish national energy statistics on their own web pages. These international statistics use data from Statistics Finland's statistics on production of electricity and heat.
Data revision - policy
Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.
The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.
Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.The aim is to keep the data as up-to-date as possible.
For example, the following general statistical methods are used in assessing the quality of the data:
- comparison of plant-specific data with data from previous years
- comparison of plant-specific data between different data sources
- comparison of data collectively between different data sources.
- review of plant efficiency ratios, also compared to the time series
- review of construction rates of combined heat and power plants and comparison with previous years
- consistency between plant production and capacity
Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.
Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
The statistics on production of electricity and heat are official statistics. The Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) are a comprehensive collection of statistics describing the development and state of society. They comprise nearly 300 sets of statistics on 26 different topics. The producers of Official Statistics of Finland have approved a common quality assurance in which they commit to common quality criteria and quality assurance measures. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The good practices followed in the statistics are presented in Statistics Finland's Quality Guidelines for Official Statistics handbook.
When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).
Every year Statistics Finland conducts statistical auditing that helps to ensure the quality of statistics.
Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics
Are you looking for previously published documentation?
The documentation released before 5.4.2022 can be found on the archive pages of the statistics.Go to the archive page