25.4.2024 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The statistics describe employment during studies at the end of the year among students attending post-basic level education leading to a qualification. Since 2005, only students aged 18 and over have been included in the statistics. The statistics for 1995 to 2004 contain employment data for students under the age of 18 unless otherwise stated. For example, the data are used
in the planning of education, and for research and evaluation purposes.
The student data describe the situation of 20 September. Students are recorded as employed if they have had an employment relationship during the last week of the year. Short employment contracts of less than one month are also included in the statistics.
The statistics describe employment during studies at the end of the year among students attending post-basic level education leading to a qualification. Since 2005, only students aged 18 and over have been included in the statistics. The statistics for 1995 to 2004 contain employment data for students under the age of 18 unless otherwise stated. For example, the data are used in the planning of education and for research and evaluation purposes.
The student data describes the situation of 20 September. Students are recorded as employed if they have had an employment relationship during the last week of the year. Short employment contracts of less than one month are also included in the statistics.
 

Statistical population

The data are produced by combining Statistics Finland’s individual-based data files on students with the data from employment statistics. The student data are based on data collected by Statistics Finland on students, and the data on employment are based on Statistics Finland’s employment statistics data. The statistics contain data on the employment of students in general upper secondary education, vocational education, university of applied sciences education and university education.
 

Statistical unit

The statistics describe employed students aged 18 and over.
 

Unit of measure

The number of students, number of employed students, age of students
 

Base period

No indices are used in the statistics.
 

Reference period

The reference period of the statistics is a calendar year.
 

Reference area

The statistical data are classified according to the classifications of fields and levels of education by Statistics Finland, the Finnish National Agency for Education and certain international organisations, as well as according to diverse regional and demographic classifications.
 

Sector coverage

The statistics describe employment during studies at the end of the year among students attending post-basic level education leading to a qualification. Since 2005, only students aged 18 and over have been included in the statistics. The statistics for 1995 to 2004 contain employment data for students under the age of 18 unless otherwise stated.
 

Time coverage

The website of Statistics Finland contains statistical releases starting from 2003.
 

Frequency of dissemination

The statistics are published once a year.
 

Concepts

Education

An organised activity, the aim of which is to produce competence based on teaching.

Comment:
Education can be divided into education and training leading to a qualification or degree and non-qualification studies.

Educational institution

An educational institution refers to an administrative unit with a principal or other head, which has teachers and other personnel in its service (role of employers), and which is liable to keep books and compile other documentation, in which students are registered, whose activities are regulated by a legal act or decree, which follows a national curriculum, and which is financed and controlled by a public authority. An educational institution does not refer to a school building or facility. A new educational institution is established, an educational institution is abolished or merged with another educational institution at the decision of the organiser of education (maintainer of the educational institution) or a public authority.

Statistics Finland has assigned an individualised educational institution ID to each educational institution. Educational institutions are classified according to a classification of types of educational institutions.

Educational system

The Finnish educational system is comprised of the following:

Pre-primary education is provided in Finland to 6-year-old children, usually at children's day care homes. Some 6-year-old children receive pre-primary education in comprehensive schools. Attendance of pre-primary education has been compulsory since 2015.
Comprehensive school education is general knowledge education provided for entire age cohorts. All children permanently resident in Finland must attend compulsory education. Compulsory education starts in the year of the child's seventh birthday.
Compulsory education finishes when the syllabus of comprehensives school education has been completed (9-year comprehensive school), or 10 years from the start of compulsory education. In exceptional cases compulsory education may start already at the age of six and last 11 years due to a disability or illness. A student who has received a leaving certificate from comprehensive school in the same year or in the year before it may continue to attend optional additional education (10th grade).

Post-comprehensive school education, or upper secondary general education and vocational education represent secondary level of education. Upper secondary general school education is education leading to a matriculation examination. Its scope is three years and it gives general eligibility to further education. Vocational education can be either educational institution-based or apprenticeship training. In apprenticeship training, most of the studying is comprised of learning through practical work tasks at a workplace. The qualifications are initial vocational qualifications attained in three years, which also give general eligibility to further polytechnic or university studies.

Further and specialist vocational qualifications represent further vocational education. They, as well as initial vocational qualifications can be attained in a skills examination that can be taken irrespective of the way of acquisition of professional skills, and in which skills can be proven on the basis of preparatory education for a skills examination or work experience.

Attainment of university of applied sciences degrees takes 3.5 to 4.5 years and higher university of applied sciences degrees requiring work practice 1-1.5 years. Attainment of lower university degrees takes three years while higher university degrees take two years longer. Attainers of higher level university degrees may continue their studies to licentiate and doctorate level degrees.

Level of education

Category into which programmes leading to a qualification or degree are divided on the basis of the requirement level.

Comment:
Selection to education on a particular level of education often requires completion of a lower level of education.

The level of education is measured on the basis of both the overall duration or target time of the education and the requirement level.

Levels of education: early childhood education and care and pre-primary education (duration varies), primary education (6 years), lower secondary education (3 years, in total 9 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), upper secondary education (3 years, in total 12 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), post-secondary non-tertiary education (1-2 years, in total 13-14 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), lowest tertiary education (2-3 years, in total 14-15 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), bachelor's or equivalent level (3-4 years, in total 15-16 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), master's or equivalent level (5-6 years, in total 17-18 years from the beginning of comprehensive education) and second stage of tertiary education (2-4 years, in total 19-22 years from the beginning of comprehensive education).

The level of education indicator cannot be calculated directly on the basis of the duration presented in this concept.

Sector of education

Comprehensive education, general upper secondary education, vocational education, university of applied sciences education, university education.

Student

In the statistics on students and qualifications of educational institutions, on progress of studies, on employment of students and on transition from school to further education and work, students refer to the students attending upper secondary general, vocational, university of applied sciences education and university education leading to a qualification or degree and registered at educational institutions on 20 September and, since 2004, in respect of preparatory education for a skills examination and apprenticeship training, between 1 January and 31 December of the statistical reference year. In the statistics on students and qualifications of educational institutions, students also include comprehensive school students according to the situation on 20 September. Up to 2001, data on students in university education describe the situation on 31 December and include attainers of a degree in autumn.

Student

A learner studying in other than pre-primary or comprehensive education.

Comment
Students include persons studying in general upper secondary school, vocational upper secondary education and training, tertiary education and liberal adult education.
Adults studying in comprehensive education are also referred to as students.
In Statistics Finland's statistics the concept refers to upper secondary and tertiary level students.
In Statistics Finland's statistics students are required to be registered at an educational institution.

University education

Tertiary education provided by universities.

Comment:
The objective of the education is a bachelor’s or master’s degree or a scientific postgraduate degree, which are licentiate's and doctoral degrees.
Education not leading to a qualification or degree can also be completed.

Vocational education and training

Education and training completed after the comprehensive education syllabus, aimed at producing vocational competence.

Comment:
Initial, further and specialist vocational qualifications can be obtained in vocational education and training.
In addition to completing a qualification, parts of a qualification can also be completed in vocational education and training.

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

Since 2005, only students aged 18 and over have been included in the statistics, because data on the employment of students aged 15 to 17 are no longer available in the earnings-related pension data. The statistics for 1995 to 2004 contain employment data for students under the age of 18 unless otherwise stated. The employment data for 2017 are based on the final data on the population’s main type of activity in Statistics Finland’s employment statistics. In 2018 and before 2017, the statistics on employment of students were based on preliminary data on employment. Due to the incomplete nature of the preliminary data, the number of employed persons in the data differs from the final figures by around 0.2 to 0.3 per cent at the level of Finland as a whole. Before 2005, the deviation was ±1 per cent. The data for 2018 to 2017, as well as data for 2017 and beyond, are therefore not fully comparable. The data for 2018 are based on preliminary data on employment due to the change in the schedule of the final data on employment statistics.
 

Timeliness

The delay between the completion of the data (students in education leading to a qualification or degree, used as background data for the statistics on employment of students) and the publication of the data is about four months. The delay between the compilation of the statistics and the publication is approximately 19 months.
 

Punctuality

There are no delays between the release date according to the release calendar and the actual date of release.
 

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The statistics use the National Classification of Education 2016, which is based on the UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education 2011 (ISCED 2011). The statistics cover the whole of Finland.
 

Comparability - over time

Since 2005, only students aged 18 and over have been included in the statistics, because data on the employment of students aged 15 to 17 are no longer available in the earnings-related pension data. The statistics for 1995 to 2004 contain employment data for students under the age of 18 unless otherwise stated. The employment data for 2017 are based on the final data on the population’s main type of activity in Statistics Finland’s employment statistics. In 2018 and before 2017, the statistics on employment of students were based on preliminary data on employment. Due to the incomplete nature of the preliminary data, the number of employed persons in the data differs from the final figures by around 0.2 to 0.3 per cent at the level of Finland as a whole. Before 2005, the deviation was ±1 per cent. For this reason, the data for 2017 or later and data for 2016 and beyond, are not fully comparable. The data for 2018 are based on preliminary data on employment due to the change in the schedule of the final data on employment statistics.

Concerning vocational education and training, the cross-sectional data for 2018 cover all students, because the Vocational Education and Training Act (531/2017), which came into force at the beginning of 2018, no longer provides for the separation of education into education aimed at young people and education aimed at adults (preparatory education for a skills examination). The number of students in the cross-sectional data is not comparable with the number of students in previous years, because before 2018, the cross-sectional data (as of 20 September) only covered students in curriculum-based vocational education aimed at young people.
 

Coherence - cross domain

The statistics are based on the same data sources and have been compiled in accordance with the same principles as Statistics Finland’s statistics by educational sector. These statistics can be used in parallel, provided that the specific characteristics of the statistics are taken into account.

Data on the employment of students are also produced based on Statistics Finland’s sample-based Labour Force Survey. The survey has previously included questions regarding the employment of students. Register-based data and interview data differ in terms of the data collection method, timing of the collection and data content. See Labour Force Survey.
 

Coherence - internal

The statistics are based on the same data sources and have been compiled in accordance with the same principles as Statistics Finland’s statistics by educational sector. These statistics can be used in parallel, provided that the specific characteristics of the statistics are taken into account.

Data on the employment of students are also produced based on Statistics Finland’s sample-based Labour Force Survey. The survey has previously included questions regarding the employment of students. Register-based data and interview data differ in terms of the data collection method, timing of the collection and data content. See Labour Force Survey.
 

Source data and data collections

Source data

These statistics are based on individual-based data files collected by Statistics Finland from the organisers of education and from the national data reserve of higher education institutions, as well as on the register-based data from preliminary employment statistics. The data represent total data.
The population is students attending post-basic level education leading to a qualification on 20 September. Since 2005, only students aged 18 and over have been included in the population. The statistics for 1995 to 2004 contain employment data for students under the age of 18 unless otherwise stated. The data on student employment describe the situation of the last week of the statistical reference year.
 

Data collection

The data on are produced by combining Statistics Finland’s individual-based data files on students with the data from employment statistics. The student data are based on the data collected by Statistics Finland from the organisers of education and from the national data reserve of higher education institutions. The employment data have been produced utilising existing administrative data such as registers of earnings-related pension providers and tax authorities. The employment data for 2018 are based on preliminary data on employment due to the delay in the schedule of the final data on employment statistics. The data for 2017 are based on the data on final employment data, and the data before 2017 are based on preliminary employment statistics.
No separate data collection has been carried out for compiling these statistics.
 

Frequency of data collection

The data are collected once a year.
 

Methods

Data compilation

During data processing, the high quality of the student and employment data on which the statistics are based is ensured by means of various statistical checking software and by comparison to corresponding previous statistics and other data sources.
 

Data validation

The data of the statistics on employment of students are validated in many stages during the statistical process. During the data processing process, the high quality of the data is ensured through a wide range of statistical verification programs, data requests addressed to data providers and comparisons with similar statistics and other data sources.
 

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Population and Social Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the general act of the national statistical service, the Statistics Act (280/2004, amend. 361/2013). Only the necessary data that are not available from administrative data sources are collected from data suppliers. Index series are published so that no individual enterprise’s data or development can be deduced from them.
 

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is absolutely guaranteed in accordance with the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Personal Data Act (532/1999) and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), as well as the requirements of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Wilful breaching of data protection is punishable.
 

Confidentiality - data treatment

When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns
the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).

More information about this is available on Statistics Finland’s quality management pages.

Every year Statistics Finland conducts statistical auditing that helps to ensure the quality of statistics.

 

Release policy

Statistics Finland’s release calendar lists in advance all the statistical data and publications to be released over the year. Statistical releases can be found under statistics-specific releases. Statistical data are released on the Internet at 8 am, unless otherwise indicated. The calendar is updated on weekdays. Statistics Finland’s release calendar for the coming year is published every year in December.
 

Data sharing

Data of the statistics are made available to the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Finnish National Agency for Education in accordance with the H9098-OKM-OPH information service agreement.
 

Accessibility and clarity

The statistics on employment of students and related statistical database updates are published on Statistics Finland’s website.
Data users can subscribe to emails concerning releases on desired topics (“news notification service”).
The releasing of topical news, such as news contents, is decided on a case-by-case basis. The channels of topical news are:
www.stat.fi
www.facebook.com/Tilastotohtori
https://twitter.com/StatsFinland
 

Quality assessment

During the processing of the data, the high quality of the student and employment data on which the statistics are based is ensured through various statistical verification programs, as well as by comparing the data with previous comparable statistics and other data sources.

 

Quality assurance

When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns
the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).
More information about this is available on Statistics Finland’s on quality management pages.
Every year Statistics Finland conducts statistical auditing that helps to ensure the quality of statistics.
The statistics on employment of students represent official statistics. The Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) are a comprehensive collection of statistics describing the development and state of society. They comprise nearly 300 sets of statistics on 26 different topics. The producers of Official Statistics of Finland have approved a common quality assurance in which they commit to common quality criteria and quality assurance measures. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The good practices followed in the statistics are presented in Statistics Finland’s Quality Guidelines for Official Statistics handbook.

User access

The data will be published simultaneously for all users of the statistics on the home page of the statistics at https://www.stat.fi/til/opty/index_en.html
 

Statistical experts

Vesa Hämäläinen
Senior Statistician
029 551 2594

The documentation released before 5.4.2022 can be found on the archive pages of the statistics.

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