28.6.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The structural business and financial statement statistics describe enterprises operating in Finland. The statistics comprise industry-specific data on the number of enterprises, personnel and financial statements. The data are published in accordance with sectoral classification, legal form, type of ownership and size category. The data on enterprises' financial statements describe the formation of profit, profitability and balance sheet structure in different industries. The examined variables are profit and loss account and balance sheet data, and parameters calculated from them.
 

Statistical population

Enterprises engaged in business activities in Finland constitute the population of the  structural business and financial statement statistics. The key classification variables of the statistics, such as industry, sector, legal form, type of ownership, and the size category of wage and salary earners, are obtained from the Register of Enterprises and Establishments of Statistics Finland. Enterprises are selected for the statistics on the basis of criteria for the operating period, personnel, turnover and balance sheet. Persons carrying on a business using single-entry bookkeeping are also included in the statistics. Market-based enterprises and foreign branches are also included. The  structural business and financial statement statistics are based on the business tax data of the Finnish Tax Administration and the inquiries carried out among enterprises by Statistics Finland. The business tax data contain financial statements data on all enterprises and persons carrying on a business under the Business Tax Act. The structural inquiries among enterprises produce information on the number of wage and salary earners and industries. The financial statements inquiries carried out by Statistics Finland produce detailed information on enterprises’ turnover, expenditure and investments.
 

Statistical unit

The structural business and financial statement statistics are published for enterprises and legal units. According to Statistics Finland’s definition, an enterprise is a unit with decision-making autonomy, which produces goods and/or services for sale in the market. An enterprise may comprise one or more legal units. If an enterprise comprises more than one legal unit, transactions between the units have been eliminated.
Legal units include:
  • persons carrying on a business, trade or profession in their own name, or in the name of a registered firm
  • legal persons (such as limited liability company, limited partnership, general partnership, cooperative, savings bank and economic association) 
  • market-based enterprises.
A legal unit is an administrative reporting unit and a reporting unit for its own data collection.

Unit of measure

EUR 1,000, per cent and the number of personnel are used as the units of measure in the statistics’ database tables.

 

Base period

The  structural business and financial statement statistics are not index-based. The data are specific for each year.
 

Reference period

A calendar year is used as the reference period for the  structural business and financial statement statistics. As the data relate to the accounting period that ended in the statistical year, the accounting period does not always follow the calendar year. Extended and shortened accounting periods are converted to correspond to 12 months.

Reference area

The  structural business and financial statement statistics are published on the level of the entire country. The financial statements data also cover activities outside Finland that are included in the enterprise’s financial statements produced in Finland. Thus, the turnover described in the statistics may also include goods sent abroad for processing and sales of goods and services from abroad to abroad.
 

Sector coverage

The structural business and financial statement statistics cover all industries, legal forms, types of ownership and business sector categories. Enterprises that have operated for more than six months in the statistical year and have employed more than 0.5 persons, or have a balance sheet total of more than EUR 170,000 or a turnover exceeding an annually determined statistical limit (EUR 11,598 in 2018) are included in the statistics. The data contained in the basic table of the statistics are published by main industry and for all sub-industries. Data at different classification levels are published at main industry and 2-digit levels. Enterprises engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishery (industry A) in which income from agriculture has exceeded the statistical turnover limit in the statistical year are included in the statistics. Only personal data on agriculture are comprehensively included in the statistics. For industry 02, only the units in which income from forestry has exceeded the statistical limit are included in the statistics. Only the number of enterprises and personnel data are published for financial and insurance activities (TOL K). There are two small enterprises engaged in the manufacture of tobacco products (TOL 12000), and the turnover of both enterprises exceeds the statistical limit. The data on these enterprises are not published for the industry they represent, and neither enterprise is included in the combined figures for all industries. Publishing these data would lead to the protection of data on industries that are significantly more important. Financial statements of enterprises are published for industries B to S (except for financial and insurance activities (TOL K)). With a few exceptions, the data are published by main category and at the 2-digit level of the Standard Industrial Classification.
 

Time coverage

The annual data contained in the Business Register and the financial statements data of the structural business statistics were combined into the  structural business and financial statement statistics in 2013. Annual data contained in the statistics can be found on the website of the statistics and in Statistics Finland’s StatFin database for the period from 2013 to 2018. The data are not revised. Financial statements data can be found in Statistics Finland’s StatFin database for the period from 1999 to 2012. Data for years prior to 1998 are available in paper publications for the period from 1974 to 1998. Annual data entered in the Business Register are contained in Statistics Finland’s StatFin database for the period from 1993 to 2012. Data for the years before 1993 are available as paper publications.
 

Frequency of dissemination

The structural business and financial statement statistics are published twice a year on the website of Statistics Finland. The preliminary data are published in September of the year following the statistical year, and the final data in December.
 

Concepts

Business ID (Identity code)

Business ID, or business and organisation code, is an identifying code given by authorities to all legal units.

The Business ID consists of seven numbers, a hyphen and a control number.

Enterprise

An enterprise is a unit with decision-making autonomy, which produces goods and/or services to be sold on the market.

Enterprise corresponds to legal unit, if the legal unit is not part of an enterprise group. Otherwise, the enterprise is an enterprise group or part of one.

The definition of enterprise is based on the EU regulation concerning statistical units (EEC) 696/93.

Legal unit

A legal unit is a corporation, or an organisation registered for conducting business. A legal unit is identified with a Business ID.

Legal units are, for example, limited companies, private practitioners of trade, co-operative societies, state-owned companies and foundations.

Natural person

A natural person engages in entrepreneurial activity under his/her own name or under a registered trading name.
This group includes own-account workers, sole proprietors, most agricultural and forestry entrepreneurs, as well as practitioners of trade.

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

The main source of error is non-response.
 

Timeliness

Data are collected and checked 11 months after the end of the statistical year. Preliminary data on the  structural business and financial statement statistics are published nine months after the end of the statistical year. Final data are published 12 months after the end of the statistical year.
 

Punctuality

There are no delays in releasing the data contained in the  structural business and financial statement statistics. The data are published on the days given in the release calendar.
 

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The data cover the whole of Finland. The  structural business and financial statement statistics are based on the Finnish Accounting Standards (FAS) and the international industrial classification. The data sent to Eurostat are internationally comparable.
 

Comparability - over time

The  structural business and financial statement statistics were established in 2013 by combining the annual statistics of the Business Register and the financial statements statistics of the structural business statistics. This means that a coherent time series is available from 2013 onwards. Similar data are also available from discontinued statistics. Their temporal comparability is weakened by changes concerning industries, and changes in the Accounting Act and Accounting Decree.
 

Coherence - cross domain

Coherence with other statistics is limited by conceptual and methodological issues. The turnover given in the business indicators has been calculated on the basis of the periodic tax data supplied by the Finnish Tax Administration. The definition of turnover in the periodic tax returns does not fully correspond with the turnover stated in the profit and loss account. The industry-specific added value in the national accounts at basic prices differs from the value added stated in financial statements, because the calculations of the national accounts are prepared separately for each establishment. The calculation of the value added stated in financial statements is based on enterprise-level data. The value added stated in financial statements is also valued at producer prices. The calendar year, six months, quarter or month is used as the measurement period in the monthly indicators of enterprises. The measurement period for structural business and financial statement statistics is the 12-month accounting period. The accounting period is not always the same as the calendar year.
 

Coherence - internal

The data contained in the  structural business and financial statement statistics are internally coherent.
 

Source data and data collections

Source data

The data contained in the  structural business and financial statement statistics are based on the business tax data and registers of the Finnish Tax Administration, and inquiries carried out by Statistics Finland. The source data are based on data on legal units. These source data are described in more detail below. The data are supplemented with inquiries carried out by Statistics Finland.
Finnish Tax Administration registers
Business start and end data, home municipality, preliminary industry of new enterprises, and wages and salaries are obtained from the Finnish Tax Administration registers. The register data are supplied to Statistics Finland once a month.
Business tax data of the Finnish Tax Administration
The business tax data contain profit and loss account and balance sheet data, as well as data on investments in fixed assets. The data are supplied on main tax forms 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 6C and 6U and on appendix forms 7A, 7M and 62. The forms contain data on enterprises that have been liable to pay taxes in the year in question. The business tax data are supplied to Statistics Finland on previously agreed dates. There are approximately ten data deliveries each year.
Statistics Finland’s own data collections
Each year, Statistics Finland carries out structural business inquiries to collect data on multi-establishment enterprises with at least five employees and single-establishment enterprises with at least 20 employees. For enterprises with fewer than 20 employees, inquiries are sent to units whose data have changed on the basis of administrative registers, commercial data or other surveys of Statistics Finland. New enterprises are usually included in the inquiries among new enterprises soon after they have started operations. The number of wage and salary earners, industry and addresses are obtained through separate inquiries. The number of wage and salary earners in enterprises not included in the surveys is estimated.
Each year, Statistics Finland collects data from approximately 5,000 enterprises by means of a financial statements inquiry (TILKES). All enterprises with more than 50 employees or a balance sheet of more than EUR 300 million are included in the financial statements inquiry. Enterprises employing between 10 and 50 persons are selected for the inquiry by means of random sampling. A small number of enterprises with fewer than ten employees and all market-based municipal enterprises are also included in the inquiry. The purpose of the inquiry is to collect data that are more detailed than the figures included in the enterprises’ official financial statements. The inquiry covers specific turnover and cost data, investment data and other additional data on financial statements.
 

Data collection

Data for Statistics Finland’s own data collections are gathered with a web questionnaire. In addition, under an agreement between Statistics Finland and the Finnish Tax Administration, the latter agency delivers the business tax data to Statistics Finland on the agreed dates. The financial statements web questionnaire has been tested in connection with its introduction, and when changes have been made to it. The instructions for the questionnaire have been specified based on customer feedback. The non-response of the inquiry is monitored yearly.
 

Frequency of data collection

The data for the  structural business and financial statement statistics, TILKES, and the Business Register are collected once a year.
 

Methods

Data compilation

Processing of business tax data
The quality of the Finnish Tax Administration data are verified programmatically. The data are revised automatically by means of mass editing and imputing. Values missing from the data are primarily replaced with data for earlier years and secondarily with data on enterprises in the same category in terms of turnover and number of personnel. Errors and outliers are corrected logically by means of editing or by removing outliers. Minor turnover errors (less than five per cent) are scaled. Two different imputation methods are in use. Donor imputation is used when the enterprise is included in the statistical frame but no data are available in the material provided by the Finnish Tax Administration. In such cases, the data are obtained from enterprises of similar size operating in the same industry. The second method is used when no tax data on the enterprise can be obtained for the statistical year in question but the data for the previous year are available. In such cases, the data are imputed by using changes in turnover in the periodic tax data as weighting coefficient.
Own inquiry
Sample responses are processed manually with the business tax data for each enterprise separately, using the image archive of the Finnish Patent and Registration Office. Checking of the additional data on financial statements is guided by internal production application rules. Using approved data as a basis, industry-specific coefficients are calculated for turnover specifications and expenditure specifications. The coefficients are used to produce corresponding data for the entire group of enterprises. All enterprises in the random sample that have received only a small number of penalty points are approved en masse. Some of them are returned to manual checking.
 

Data validation

The quality of the Finnish Tax Administration data is verified programmatically. Business tax data are scored separately for each enterprise in accordance with a scoring model. In the model, penalty points are given for logical errors in income, expenditure or balance sheet subtotals, and for differences in balance sheet totals and changes in turnover. Moreover, companies with a large number of employees get more points than small enterprises. Enterprises with a large number of penalty points are corrected manually even if they were not included in the TILKES inquiry. Quality codes are determined for business tax data, and the codes apply to income, expenditure and balance sheets in each individual enterprise.
 

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Economic Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

Compilation of the statistics is guided by the Statistics Act (280/2004, as amended 361/2013), the general act of the national statistical service. Only the necessary data that cannot be obtained from administrative data sources are requested from data suppliers. The data are published so that no individual enterprise’s data or development can be deduced from them. The compilation of the statistics is also guided by the following legislation:
  1. Act and Decree (1336/1997) and the Act amending the Accounting Act (1376/2016)
  2. of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 295/2008 concerning structural business statistics, which is the key regulation guiding the compilation of annual business statistics.
  3. Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 on statistical units is applied to the statistics on business activities.
  4. on industrial classifications; Standard Industrial Classification 2008 is based on the European Union’s common industrial classification (NACE Rev. 2), which has been supplemented for national needs on the 5-digit level.
  5. on business registers 177/2008.

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is absolutely guaranteed in accordance with the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Personal Data Act (532/1999) and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), as well as the requirements of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees only have access to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Wilful breaching of data protection is punishable.

Confidentiality - data treatment

The data contained in the  structural business and financial statement statistics are published at aggregate level. Of the variables used in the statistics, the number of enterprises, number of personnel and the industry are publicly available. Other data are subject to confidentiality provisions. The threshold value rule is used in the statistics to assess the disclosure risk of data for all industries. The protected data are suppressed. In primary suppression, data on an individual industry group are protected by suppression if the group has data on one or two enterprises. In secondary encryption, the data are suppressed so that the primarily protected data cannot be derived. The same encryption rules apply to the information services and stricter encryption can be applied on a case-by-case basis. The data transmitted to Eurostat that are subject to primary and secondary encryption are indicated with codes.
 

Release policy

Statistics Finland’s release calendar lists in advance all the statistical data and publications to be released over the year. Statistical releases can be found under statistics-specific releases. The statistical data are released on the Internet at 8 am unless otherwise indicated. The calendar is updated on weekdays. Statistics Finland’s release calendar for the coming year is published in December each year. The dates of future releases can also be seen on the website of the statistics.

Data sharing

The structural business and financial statements data are published annually on the statistics’ own website and in the StatFin database. The data are also submitted to the national accounts, the information service subject to a charge and the researcher services. Industry-specific data are also transmitted to Eurostat, which publishes the data on its own website. The basic data of the  structural business and financial statement statistics are sent to Statistics and Research Åland each year.
 

Quality assessment

The quality of the  structural business and financial statement statistics is examined as the data accumulate. At aggregate level, the data are compared with the previous year and the most significant changes are examined. Coherence analyses of statistics on economic cycles are also carried out.
 

Quality assurance

When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).
Asiasta kerrotaan enemmän Tilastokeskuksen laadunhallinnan sivulla.
More information about this is available on Statistics Finland’s quality management pages.
Statistics Finland conducts statistical audits every year to ensure the high quality of the statistics. The  structural business and financial statement statistics were audited in 2017. The statistics are an official set of statistics. The Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) are a comprehensive collection of statistics describing the development and state of society. They comprise nearly 300 sets of statistics on 26 different topics. The producers of Official Statistics of Finland have approved a common quality pledge, in which they undertake to observe common quality criteria and quality assurance methods. The quality criteria of the Official Statistics of Finland are compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The good practices followed in the statistics are described in more detail in Statistics Finland’s handbook Quality Guidelines for Official Statistics.
 

Tilastokeskuksessa tehdään vuosittain tilastojen läpivalaisuja, joilla osaltaan varmistetaan tilastojen laatua.

User access

The statistics are published for all users of the statistics simultaneously on the statistics’ website at https://www.tilastokeskus.fi/til/yrti/tie_en.html
No data are disclosed before the release date. The data are transmitted to Eurostat on agreed dates.
 

Statistical experts

Milka Suomalainen
Senior Statistician
029 551 3621

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