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Concepts and definitions


Coal has been formed from plant residues hundreds of millions of years ago. In energy statistics coal refers to the energy sources of charcoal (1211,1212), lignite (1221), other coal (1222,1228,1229), coke, and blast furnace and coke oven gases obtained as a by-product from the production of iron.

Combined heat and power production

This refers to combined heat and power production where backpressure or bled steam is utilised as district or process heat, and to electricity generation in engine or gas turbine-operated production machinery where the heat of exhaust gases or the cooling water is used as an energy source. Higher efficiency ratios are achieved with combined production than with separate production, in other words, better use is made of the fuels needed in the production.

Condensing power

Electric energy produced by cooling down steam with water without using the heat energy of the steam.

District heat

Heat generated by power plants, heating boilers or heating plants that is transmitted through a district heating network to heat buildings and produce hot water.

Fossil fuels

Fossil fuels refer to fuels that have been formed of biomass and stored underground millions of years ago. Fossil fuels include coal, lignite, natural gas and fuel oils refined from crude oil. In international classifications peat is often classified as fossil fuel, although it is a clearly younger fuel than them.

Industrial heat/steam

Industrial steam or heat produced by power plants of heating boilers which is utilised in industrial production processes (such as drying or heating). Includes the heat produced for heating own industrial building that is not transmitted through a district heating network.


Petajoule (PJ) is a unit of energy used for expressing the energy contents of fuels and other energy sources. 1 PJ = 1,000 TJ; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

Renewable energy sources

A common feature of renewable energy sources is that their sustainable use does not deplete their stocks in the long term. The renewable energy sources used in Finland are hydro and wind power, solar energy, aerothermal energy and ground heat captured by heat pumps, biogas, biodegradable parts of recovered and waste fuels, wood-based fuels, and other vegetable and animal-based fuels.

Separate heat production

Separate heat production refers to the production of heat by heating plants, heating boilers and transportable heating plants designed for the generation of heat only. Separate production of heat also comprises the heat recovered direct from boilers through reduction valves at separate electricity generation plants or combined heat and electricity production plants.

Separate production of electricity

Separate production of electricity refers to the generation of electricity in thermal and nuclear power plants, separate production with gas turbines and combustions engines, and hydro and wind power. Separate production also refers to the volume of electricity corresponding to the condensing load produced during off-peak heat load periods at combined heat and power plants, and supplementary production with auxiliary condensers.


Terajoule (TJ) is a measurement unit of energy that is often used to express the energy content of fuels. 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

Terawatt hour

Terawatt hour (TWh)is a unit of energy used for expressing the amount of produced energy, electricity and heat. 1 TWh = 1,000 GWh = 1,000,000 MWh = 1,000,000 000 kWh; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

Total energy used

Total energy used refers to fuels, and hydro, wind and nuclear power used in the generation of electricity and heat made commensurate into primary energy. Hydro power and wind power are made commensurate with fuels according to directly obtained electricity (3.6 PJ/TWh) and nuclear energy at the efficiency ratio of 33 per cent from produced nuclear power (10.91 TJ/GWh). The practice complies with the international method used for calculations in energy statistics.

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Production of electricity and heat [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-5099. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 14.6.2024].
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