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Concepts and definitions


Coal has been formed from plant residues hundreds of millions of years ago. In energy statistics coal refers to the energy sources of charcoal (1211,1212), lignite (1221), other coal (1222,1228,1229), coke, and blast furnace and coke oven gases obtained as a by-product from the production of iron.


Statistics on the use of electricity in manufacturing are produced in two ways. Total energy consumption in manufacturing is calculated from data on net purchases (purchased/received - sold/delivered) by establishment. Total amount of electricity used by establishments is calculated from data collected with an inquiry about energy use in manufacturing.

Gigawatt hour

Gigawatt hour (GWh) is a unit of energy used to express the amount of energy, i.e. electricity and heat. 1 GWh = 1,000 MWh = 1,000,000 kWh = 1 GWh = 3.6 TJ


Total energy consumption in manufacturing is calculated from data on net purchases (purchased/received - sold/delivered) of district heat and heat/steam used in industrial processes, i.e. heat obtained from outside for own use.


Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Refinery gas (1111)
  • LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) (1112)
  • Naphtha (1121)
  • Aviation gasoline (1123)
  • Kerosene (jet fuel) (1131)
  • Other kerosenes (1132)
  • Light fuel oil (heating fuel oil) (1134)
  • Gasoil (for non-road use) (1135)
  • Other medium distillates (1139)
  • Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content < 1% (1141)
  • Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content = 1% (1142)
  • Other heavy distillates (1143)
  • Petroleum coke (1150)
  • Recycled and waste oils (1160)
  • Other petroleum products (1190).

Other energy sources

Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Vegetable-based fuels (3170)
  • Animal-based fuels (3180)
  • Landfill gas (3211)
  • Biogas from wastewater treatment (3212)
  • Industrial biogas (3213)
  • Other biogas (3219)
  • Liquid biofuels (3220)
  • Recovered fuels (3231)
  • Demolition wood (3232)
  • Impregnated wood (chemically treated) (3233)-
  • Other mixed fuels (3239)
  • Gasified waste (3240)
  • Plastics waste (4911)
  • Rubber waste (4912)
  • Hazardous waste (4913)
  • Other waste (4919)
  • Exothermic heat from industry (4920)
  • Electricity, used in electric boilers and heat pumps (4940)
  • Hydrogen (4980)
  • Other non-specified energy sources (4990).


Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Milled peat (2110)
  • Sod peat (2120)
  • Peat pellets and briquettes (2130).


Petajoule (PJ) is a unit of energy used for expressing the energy contents of fuels and other energy sources. 1 PJ = 1,000 TJ; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh


The country is divided into regions for the development of areas and for the planning of their use. A region is an area in which the municipalities form an operationally and economically functional whole for the development of the area. The Government determines the number, areas and names of regions after hearing the regional councils and municipalities concerned.

From September 1997 the areas of regions and the regional councils representing them are exactly the same. Regional councils are responsible for supervising the interests of the municipalities in their area. Nowadays they are also in charge of regional development of their territory. According to the Government resolution (6 February 1997), the regional division of regional councils is taken as the basis for the regional divisions of State regional administrative authorities.

The official NUTS regional classification is recommended to be used as the primary regional division in statistics. In Finland NUTS level 1 refers to the division into Mainland Finland and Åland and NUTS level 2 major regions. Regions should correspond to the NUTS level 3 areas, but Finland's NUTS 2021 remains unchanged and corresponds to NUTS 2016 (valid from 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2020). Sub-regional units form LAU level 1 (NUTS 4) and municipalities LAU level 2 (NUTS 5). LAU (Local Administrative Unit).

By virtue of the Government decision of 26 February 1998 regions were given their official names. The decision took effect on 1 March 1998.

Register of Enterprises and Establishments

Statistics Finland's Register of Enterprises and Establishments is a basic statistical register that covers all enterprises, corporations (inc. public corporations) and private practitioners of trade that are liable to pay value added tax, or are employers or entered into the preliminary tax withholding register. In 2002, the Register of Enterprises and Establishments contained approximately 320,000 actively operating enterprises and corporations and 384,000 establishments.

However, only farms that act as employers or pay value added tax on the proceeds from their business activity are entered into the Register of Enterprises and Establishments. Included are also public authorities, i.e. all government agencies, municipalities and joint municipal boards, and their establishments.

Data on the structures of enterprise groups are maintained in the Enterprise Group Register. The Enterprise Group Register covers the largest groups operating in Finland as well as their group heads and subsidiary and associate companies.

Data for Statistics Finland's Register of Enterprises and Establishments are obtained from two main sources: Tax Administration's registers and own surveys.

Maintenance of the Business Register is decreed in the EU regulation on Business Registers (EEC 2186/92).

Total energy use in manufacturing

Total amounts of fuels used in manufacturing and amounts of electricity and heat purchased from outside for own use (net purchases, i.e. purchased/received - sold/delivered). Thus the amounts of energy are commensurable and when summed up describe the total consumption of energy in a given industry.

Wood fuels

Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Firewood (stems and split firewood) (3111)
  • Chips from roundwood (3112)
  • Forest residue chips (3113)
  • Bark (3121)
  • Sawdust, cutter shavings etc. (3122)
  • Wood residue chips (3123)
  • Unspecified industrial wood residue (3128)
  • Other industrial wood residue (3129)
  • Black liquor and other concentrated liquors (3130)
  • Other by-products from wood processing industry (3140)
  • Recovered wood (3150)
  • Wood pellets and briquettes (3160).

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Energy use in manufacturing [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-7776. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 23.5.2024].
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