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Concepts and definitions

12-month moving total

Total for the latest twelve months.

For example, the 12-month moving total for March is obtained by adding up data from the beginning of the previous year's April until the end of the current's year's March. Respectively, the total for April is obtained by adding up data from the beginning of the previous year's May until the end of the current year's April. Thus, the difference between the 12-month moving totals of April and March gives the difference between the previous year's and the current year's data for April.

Energy intensity

Energy intensity is defined as the ratio of total energy consumption to gross domestic product.

Final energy consumption

Final energy consumption measures the consumption of electricity and heat, fuels for space heating, transport fuels and fuels for industrial processes. It differs from total consumption in that energy transmission and distribution losses have been removed from it. Thus, it represents the final amount of energy left at the disposal of households and other consumers.

Heating degree day (HDD)

Figures describing the annual heating requirement in different localities have been calculated for indoor temperature of 17°C assuming that heating is stopped in spring when outdoor temperature rises above 10°C and started in autumn when it falls below 12°C. Figures for heating degree days are produced by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. These statistics have been compiled by using the heating degree day figure for Jyväskylä to describe the average heating requirement for the whole of Finland.


Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Refinery gas (1111)
  • LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) (1112)
  • Naphtha (1121)
  • Aviation gasoline (1123)
  • Kerosene (jet fuel) (1131)
  • Other kerosenes (1132)
  • Light fuel oil (heating fuel oil) (1134)
  • Gasoil (for non-road use) (1135)
  • Other medium distillates (1139)
  • Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content < 1% (1141)
  • Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content = 1% (1142)
  • Other heavy distillates (1143)
  • Petroleum coke (1150)
  • Recycled and waste oils (1160)
  • Other petroleum products (1190).

Other energy sources

Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Vegetable-based fuels (3170)
  • Animal-based fuels (3180)
  • Landfill gas (3211)
  • Biogas from wastewater treatment (3212)
  • Industrial biogas (3213)
  • Other biogas (3219)
  • Liquid biofuels (3220)
  • Recovered fuels (3231)
  • Demolition wood (3232)
  • Impregnated wood (chemically treated) (3233)-
  • Other mixed fuels (3239)
  • Gasified waste (3240)
  • Plastics waste (4911)
  • Rubber waste (4912)
  • Hazardous waste (4913)
  • Other waste (4919)
  • Exothermic heat from industry (4920)
  • Electricity, used in electric boilers and heat pumps (4940)
  • Hydrogen (4980)
  • Other non-specified energy sources (4990).


Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Milled peat (2110)
  • Sod peat (2120)
  • Peat pellets and briquettes (2130).


Petajoule (PJ) is a unit of energy used for expressing the energy contents of fuels and other energy sources. 1 PJ = 1,000 TJ; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

Total energy consumption

Total energy consumption describes total commensurate consumption of domestic energy sources and imported energy in Finland. It includes fuels used in the production and processing of energy, and energy used in final consumption, including transport fuels and fuels used for heating buildings.

Wood fuels

Comprises following fuel classification categories:

  • Firewood (stems and split firewood) (3111)
  • Chips from roundwood (3112)
  • Forest residue chips (3113)
  • Bark (3121)
  • Sawdust, cutter shavings etc. (3122)
  • Wood residue chips (3123)
  • Unspecified industrial wood residue (3128)
  • Other industrial wood residue (3129)
  • Black liquor and other concentrated liquors (3130)
  • Other by-products from wood processing industry (3140)
  • Recovered wood (3150)
  • Wood pellets and briquettes (3160).

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Energy supply and consumption [e-publication].
ISSN=1799-7976. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 20.6.2024].
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