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5 Classifications

5.1 Socio-economic Groups

Classification of Socio-economic Groups 1989

Code Heading
3 Upper-level employees with administrative, managerial, professional and related occupations
  31 Senior officials and upper management
  32 Senior officials and employees in research and planning
  33 Senior officials and employees in education and training
  34 Other senior officials and employees
4 Lower-level employees with administrative and clerical occupations
  41 Supervisors
  42 Clerical and sales workers, independent work
  43 Clerical and sales workers, routine work
  44 Other lower-level employees with administrative and clerical occupations
5 Manual workers
  51 Workers in agriculture, forestry and commercial fishing
  52 Manufacturing workers
  53 Other production workers
  54 Distribution and service workers

From 2011 onwards, the socio-economic groups are based on the new Classification of Occupations 2010. Data are not fully comparable with earlier data starting from 2011. Further information .

5.2 Standard Industrial Classification

Standard Industrial Classification TOL 2008

Code Heading
  Industries total
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
01 Crop and animal production, hunting and related service activities
02 Forestry and logging
03 Fishing and aquaculture
B Mining and quarrying
05 Mining of coal and lignite
06 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas
07 Mining of metal ores
08 Other mining and quarrying
09 Mining support service activities
C Manufacturing
10 Manufacture of food products
11 Manufacture of beverages
12 Manufacture of tobacco products
13 Manufacture of textiles
14 Manufacture of wearing apparel
15 Manufacture of leather and related products
16 Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
17 Manufacture of paper and paper products
18 Printing and reproduction of recorded media
19 Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
22 Manufacture of rubber and plastic products
23 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products
24 Manufacture of basic metals
25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
26 Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products
27 Manufacture of electrical equipment
28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
30 Manufacture of other transport equipment
31 Manufacture of furniture
32 Other manufacturing
33 Repair and installation of machinery and equipment
D Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
E Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
36 Water collection, treatment and supply
37 Sewerage
38 Waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery
39 Remediation activities and other waste management services

Code Heading
F Construction
41 Construction of buildings
42 Civil engineering
43 Specialised construction activities
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
45 Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
46 Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles
47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles
H Transportation and storage
49 Land transport and transport via pipelines
50 Water transport
51 Air transport
52 Warehousing and support activities for transportation
53 Postal and courier activities
I Accommodation and food service activities
55 Accommodation
56 Food and beverage service activities
J Information and communication
58 Publishing activities
59 Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities
60 Programming and broadcasting activities
61 Telecommunications
62 Computer programming, consultancy and related activities
63 Information service activities
K Financial and insurance activities
64 Financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding
65 Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security
66 Activities auxiliary to financial services and insurance activities
L Real estate activities
68 Real estate activities
M Professional, scientific and technical activities
69 Legal and accounting activities
70 Activities of head offices; management consultancy activities
71 Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis
72 Scientific research and development
73 Advertising and market research
74 Other professional, scientific and technical activities
75 Veterinary activities
N Administrative and support service activities
77 Rental and leasing activities
78 Employment activities
79 Travel agency, tour operator and other reservation service and related activities
80 Security and investigation activities
81 Services to buildings and landscape activities
82 Office administrative, office support and other business support activities
O Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
84 Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
P Education
85 Education
Q Human health and social work activities
86 Human health activities
87 Residential care activities
88 Social work activities without accommodation
R Arts, entertainment and recreation
90 Creative, arts and entertainment activities
91 Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities
92 Gambling and betting activities
93 Sports activities and amusement and recreation activities
S Other service activities
94 Activities of membership organisations
95 Repair of computers and personal and household goods
96 Other personal service activities
T Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use
97 Activities of households as employers of domestic personnel
98 Undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of private households for own use
U Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies
99 Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies
X Industry unknown
00 Industry unknown

5.3 Classification of Occupations

Classification of Occupations 2010

Code Heading                                                                      
  Occupations total
1 Managers
  11 Chief executives, senior officials and legislators
  12 Administrative and commercial managers
  13 Production and specialised services managers
  14 Hospitality, retail and other services managers
 2 Professionals
  21 Science and engineering professionals
  22 Health professionals
  23 Teaching professionals
  24 Business and administration professionals
  25 Information and communications technology professionals
  26 Legal, social and cultural professionals
3 Technicians and associate professionals
  31 Science and engineering associate professionals
  32 Health associate professionals
  33 Business and administration associate professionals
  34 Legal, social, cultural and related associate professionals
  35 Information and communications technicians
4 Clerical support workers
  41 General and keyboard clerks
  42 Customer services clerks
  43 Numerical and material recording clerks
  44 Other clerical support workers
5 Service and sales workers
  51 Personal service workers
  52 Sales workers
  53 Personal care workers
  54 Protective services workers
6 Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
  61 Market-oriented skilled agricultural workers
  62 Market-oriented skilled forestry, fishery and hunting workers
  63 Subsistence farmers, fishers, hunters and gatherers
7 Craft and related trades workers
  71 Building and related trades workers, excluding electricians
  72 Metal, machinery and related trades workers
  73 Handicraft and printing workers
  74 Electrical and electronic trades workers
  75 Food processing, wood working, garment and other craft and related trades workers

Code Heading                                                                      
8 Plant and machine operators, and assemblers
  81 Stationary plant and machine operators
  82 Assemblers
  83 Drivers and mobile plant operators
9 Elementary occupations
  91 Cleaners and helpers                                                                                                      
  92 Agricultural, forestry and fishery labourers
  93 Labourers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport
  94 Food preparation assistants
  95 Street and related sales and service workers
  96 Refuse workers and other elementary workers
0 Armed forces occupations
  01 Commissioned armed forces officers
  02 Non-commissioned armed forces officers
  03 Armed forces occupations, other ranks

From 2012 onwards, data on occupations are published according to the Classification of Occupations 2010. Data are not comparable with earlier data based on the Classification of Occupations 2001. Further information .

5.4 Levels of education

Classification of Education 2011, levels of education

Code Heading
0 Pre-primary education
Usually provided by children's day care centres or comprehensive schools to children aged between 3 and 6. At least one member of day care centre staff per group must have a teacher's qualification.
1 Primary educatio n
Completion of the primary school (kansakoulu). Grades 1 to 6 of the comprehensive school.
2 Lower secondary education
Completion of the middle school (keskikoulu). Grades 7 to 9 and the voluntary 10th grade of the comprehensive school (peruskoulu).
3 Upper secondary level education
Upper secondary level education comprises matriculation examination, vocational qualifications attained in 2 to 3 years, further vocational qualifications and specialist vocational qualifications.
Matriculation examination gives general eligibility for tertiary education. Upper secondary vocational education gives a vocational competence and the opportunity to pursue further studies in polytechnics and, subject to certain conditions, in universities.
5 Lowest level tertiary education
Lowest level tertiary education comprises vocational college education with a duration of 2 to 3 years after upper secondary education.
Examples of vocational college qualifications include Technician Engineer (teknikko), Diploma in Business and Administration (merkonomi) and Diploma in Nursing (sairaanhoitaja).
6 Lower-degree level tertiary education
Lower-degree level tertiary education comprises, among others, polytechnic degrees and lower university degrees, as well as engineering and sea captain's qualifications, for example. The duration of polytechnic education is 3.5 to 4.5 years.
The duration for the attainment of a lower university degree (bachelor level) is 3 to 4 years.
7 Higher-degree level tertiary education
Higher-degree level tertiary education comprises higher university degrees (Master level), specialist's degrees in medicine and polytechnic Master’s degrees.
The duration for the attainment of a higher university degree (Master level) is 5 to 6 years and for polytechnic Master’s degree requiring additional work experience 1 to 1.5 years.
8 Doctorate or equivalent level tertiary education
Comprises post higher-degree level academic degrees of licentiate and doctorate (scientific post-graduate degrees).
9 Level of education unknown

Source: Labour force survey 2012. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Joanna Viinikka 09 1734 3796, Pertti Taskinen 09 1734 2690,

Director in charge: Riitta Harala

Updated 5.11.2013

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Labour force survey [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-7857. Time series data 2003-2012 2012, 5 Classifications . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 3.12.2023].
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