30.3.2023 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The statistics on central government monthly salaries describe the numbers and earnings of employees remunerated within the state budget economy by variables such as industry, occupation, education, gender and age.

The data are obtained from the Tahti information system maintained by the Finnish Government Shared Services Centre for Finance and HR (Palkeet). The data are collected in October, November and December so that November is the primary statistical reference month, and the data are supplemented by data from October and December if necessary.

Statistical population

The population of the statistics comprises the monthly salary earners in the central government sector.

Statistical unit

Statistical unit is an employee/a person. Each person has their own personal identification number that can be used to combine their data with other personal data. One person may have more than one employment relationship.

Unit of measure

Earnings are reported in EUR per month.

Reference period

The reference period for the statistics is November of the statistical reference year.

Reference area

The data are described at the national level.

Sector coverage

The statistics on central government monthly salaries represent a complete enumeration covering all salary earners within the state budget economy.

Time coverage

The data are published once a year and primarily concern monthly salaries for November in the statistical reference year.

Frequency of dissemination

The data for the previous September are published in April of the following year, i.e. five months after the reference period.

Concepts

Collective agreement sector

Collective agreement sector is determined in the collective labour agreement applied in the employment relationship concerned. In the municipal sector the collective agreement sectors are specified in the main contract between the Commission for Local Authority Employers and employee organisations. A collective labour agreement is an agreement between an employee organisation and an employer or an employer organisation on the sector-specific terms of employment. Among others, the pay, working hours, vacations and other benefits that apply within the scope of the agreement are agreed on in the collective agreement. The agreements are often sector specific, but are also bound by the occupational status of the wage or salary earner concerned and are concluded for a fixed period.

Employee

A wage and salary earner (employee) is a person, who has an employment relationship with an employer and who is compensated for work performed. Wage and salary earners are either salaried employees or workers of the employer.

In statistics on wages and salaries, wage and salary earners are as a rule not divided into salaried employees and workers. A division can, however, be made according to profession or pay system. In statistics on wages and salaries, entrepreneurs paying their own salaries are not classified as wage and salary earners, as their earnings usually differ too much from the earnings of other similar wage and salary earners. In these statistics a single wage and salary earner may have several employment relationships that are, however, all treated as separate instances of wage and salary earner in the statistics.

Self-employed persons who pay even part of their earnings as salary to themselves are recorded as wage and salary earners in the labour cost statistics.

Employer sector

Employer sector describes the structure of the labour market and is determined by the decision-making unit. The classification of employer sectors used in statistics on wages and salaries and in statistics on labour costs is a national adaptation of the Classification of Sectors that is used in economic and social statistics (Classification of Sectors 2000).

The classification used in statistics on wages and salaries has the following structure:

Local government sector
Operating units of municipalities and joint municipal boards, and municipal enterprises
Central government sector
Agencies and institution financed from the State budget

Private sector
Private enterprises, enterprises with central or local government majority holding and state enterprises
Non-profit corporations, parishes, and organisations and foundations are also included in the private sector in statistics on wages and salaries.

The structure of the classification of sectors used in statistics on labour costs and in the labour cost index is similar to that of the classification used in statistics on wages and salaries.

In the index of wage and salary earnings, non-profit corporations, parishes and organisations form a separate employer sector of their own (Others).

Full-time

Structural statistics on wages and salaries:
In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the division into full-time and part-time employment is based on regular weekly working hours. In these statistics, employment relationships with regular weekly working hours exceeding 90 per cent of the general working time in the industry are defined as full-time. It has not been possible to define employment as full-time or part-time for wage earners whose regular working hours are not known. This may be due to non-reporting or irregular working hours of the person in question. For public sector teachers, full-time and part-time employment has been defined on the basis of the conditions of the employment relationship. In the structural statistics on wages and salaries, private sector teachers whose weekly teaching duty is at least 16 hours are defined as working full-time.
Statistics on private sector wages and salaries:

For private sector monthly wage earners, the definition of full-time employment is based on weekly working hours, as in the structural statistics of wages and salaries. In these statistics, wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours exceed 90 per cent of the general working time in the industry are defined as working full-time.
Information on other wage and salary earners' full-time employment is obtained through inquiries or defined according to the employment relationship. If a wage and salary earner's regular weekly working hours are not known, also information on earnings is used to define full-time employment.

The distinction between full-time and part-time employment is not made separately for private sector hourly wage earners.

Statistics on public sector wages and salaries:

For wage and salary earners in the public sector, full-time and part-time employment is defined on the basis of the character and conditions of the employment relationship. Information on full-time and part-time employment is usually obtained through inquiries.

Labour cost survey:

In statistics on labour cost, an employee whose working hours are specified in the collective agreement for government employees or the collective agreement, or the regular working time of the unit in question, is defined as working full-time.

Cf. Part-time

Hourly wage earner

The earnings of an hourly wage earner are mainly based on the hours actually worked. In addition, an hourly wage earner may have earnings for working time not worked. Compensation for hours worked and hours not worked can be paid several times a month. An hourly wage earner is usually a worker. The pay system is determined by the collective labour agreement.

Monthly wage earner

Monthly wage earners are remunerated for work performed on a monthly basis. Earnings are usually based on one month's working time and tend to stay the same from month to month. Monthly wage earners are normally salaried employees. The pay system is determined in the collective agreement.

Occupation

In statistics on wages and salaries, descriptions of occupations of wage or salary earners are based on field-specific titles of occupations, posts and tasks, and on the Classification of Occupations of Statistics Finland (Classification of Occupations 2001). The approximate number of the used field-specific occupational titles is 15,000.

In respect of the private sector the occupational titles used in statistics on wages and salaries derive from the nomenclature of occupations and tasks of the fields covered by the collective labour agreements of the Confederation of Finnish Industries EK, the nomenclature of tasks of Kirkon työmarkkinalaitos (labour market organisation of the Church) and the nomenclature of occupations of Näyttämöväen Vanhuudenturvasäätiö (foundation for pension security of stage and screen employees). The titles of occupations and tasks in the local government sector are based on the Local Government Pensions Institution's classification of occupations. The titles of occupations and tasks in the central government sector comply with the titles of occupations or tasks of letters of appointment or collective labour agreements.

The occupations in statistics on wages and salaries are classified basing on these nomenclatures of occupational titles by taking into consideration the employer sector, educational qualification and industry of the wage and salary earner. Field-specific titles of occupations or tasks are not published in statistics on wage and salary structures, where only the classification of occupations is used in describing occupations.

Part-time

Structural statistics on wages and salaries:

In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the division into full-time and part-time employment is based on regular weekly working hours. In these statistics, employment relationships with regular weekly working hours that are more than 10 per cent shorter than the general working time in the industry are defined as part-time. It has not been possible to define employment as full-time or part-time for wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours are not known. This may be due to either non-reporting or irregular working hours of the person in question. For public sector teachers, full-time and part-time employment has been defined on the basis of the conditions of the employment relationship. In the structural statistics on wages and salaries, private sector teachers whose weekly teaching duty is less than 16 hours are defined as working part-time.

Statistics on private sector wages and salaries:

For private sector monthly wage and salary earners, the definition of part-time employment is generally based on weekly working hours, as in the structural statistics of wages and salaries. In these statistics, wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours are over 10 per cent shorter than the general working time in the industry are defined as working part-time.

Information on other wage and salary earners' part-time employment is obtained through inquiries or defined according to the employment relationship. If a wage and salary earner's regular weekly working hours are not known, also information on earnings is used to define part-time employment.

The division between full-time and part-time employment is not made separately for private sector hourly wage earners.

Statistics on public sector wages and salaries:

For public sector wage and salary earners, full-time and part-time employment is defined on the basis of the character and conditions of the employment relationship. Information on full-time and part-time employment is usually obtained through inquiries.

Labour cost survey:

In statistics on labour cost, an employee whose working hours are shorter than the working hours specified in the collective agreement for government employees or the collective agreement, or the general working time of the unit in question, is defined as working part-time.

Cf. Full-time

Regular wages

Regular wages for each pay period include
- basic pay
- supplements based on duties, professional skill, years of service etc.
- supplements based on location and conditions of workplace
- premium pay
- performance-based pay components for salaried employees, workers' performance-based earnings
- taxation value for fringe benefits
- (in structural statistics on wages and salaries also pay for working hours not worked).

Regular wages do not include one-off items, such as holiday and performance bonuses. The concept of regular wages including performance-based bonuses is, however, also used in statistics on wages and salaries.

Regular wages are used in all statistics on wages and salaries, but the content may vary according to the statistics. In statistics on hourly wages, for example, regular wages include wages for time and piece rate work and contract work for the regular working time as well as the basic component of Sunday and overtime pay, but not the premia.

Cf. Total earnings

Total earnings

Total earnings describe the wages paid for regular working hours and other working hours, such as overtime or extra work. Cf. Total working hours.

Total earnings for each pay period include
- basic pay
- supplements based on duties, professional skill, years of service etc.
- supplements based on location and conditions of workplace
- premium pay
- performance-based pay components for salaried employees, wage earners' performance-based earnings
- taxation value for fringe benefits
- earnings for extra and overtime work
- in part also eventual compensation for on-call or urgent work
- other irregularly paid supplements
- (in structural statistics on wages and salaries also pay for working hours not worked).

Total earnings do not include one-off items, such as holiday and performance-based bonuses.

In statistics on wages and salaries, the concept of total earnings including performance bonuses is also used.

The concept of total earnings is used in all statistics on wages and salaries, but its content may vary according to the statistics. In statistics on private sector hourly wages and salaries, for example, total earnings include earnings from regular working hours as well as Sunday and overtime pay premia.

Cf. Regular wages

Type of employment relationship

Type of employment relationship describes the legal relationship between an employee and employer. In statistics on wages and salaries employment relationships are referred to as either permanent /valid indefinitely or fixed-term. An employment relationship may also concern specific employee categories such as trainees, trainees on apprenticeship contracts, persons with disabilities or those employed with employment promotion subsidies.

The data is usually directly obtained from inquiries for statistics on wages and salaries. In statistics on the structure of earnings, data on persons employed with employment promotion subsidies are supplemented by data obtained from the register of job seekers of the Ministry of Employment and the Economy.

Contractual employment relationship is the corresponding concept referred to in the statistics on wages and salaries in the private sector.

Cf. atypical employment in the Labour Force Survey (fixed-term and/or part-time).

Usual weekly working hours

Information on wage and salary earners' regular weekly working hours is usually collected in connection with wage inquiries. Regular weekly working hours are based on the Working Hours Act and are often in line with a specific working time system or working time mode. Sometimes regular weekly working hours can be agreed on separately and they may differ from the general working time of the industry. In the case of teachers, regular weekly working hours equal the number of hours on which weekly pay is based.

In the private sector, regular weekly working hours must average out to 40 hours per week within a reference period defined in the collective agreement. For public sector wage and salary earners with office working hours, average weekly working hours are 36.25 hours a week, and for those with general working hours 38.25 hours a week.

In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the regular 40-hour week of workers in industries which pay hourly wages has been shortened with industry-specific solutions, according to the so called "pekkassopimus". The basic consideration has been to secure the earlier income level. The shortening of working time with separate days off has been taken into account in determining regular weekly working hours in such a way that the regular weekly working hours for workers with a 40-hour week are 37.89 hours. The shortening of the working time of municipal hourly wage earners has been executed by shortening regular weekly working hours, not by adding paid or unpaid days off.

Regular wages are based on regular weekly working hours. Cf. Regular wages

Cf. Total working hours

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

The statistics on central government salaries represent total data. Possible errors in the data are due to the incorrect recording of data in the Tahti information system. Incorrect data not suitable for statistical purposes are removed from Statistics Finland’s production processes as necessary.

Punctuality

There is no delay in the publication of the statistics on central government salaries. The data are published on the day indicated in the release calendar.

Data revision - practice

The statistics on central government monthly salaries are not revised.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The data are comparable between Finland’s different geographical areas. At EU level, the comparison takes place through the EU’s Structure of Earnings statistics, which also include Finland’s Structure of Earnings statistics. For further information, see the Structure of Earnings statistics.

Comparability - over time

The data are cross-sectional data, but the data content remains similar year-on-year. 

Coherence - cross domain

The statistics on central government monthly salaries are part of the Structure of Earnings statistics, which also include statistics on monthly and hourly salaries in the local government sector, and statistics on monthly and hourly salaries in the private sector. In the Structure of Earnings statistics, all sectors are made mutually commensurable by means of statistical measures. Of the sectoral statistics, the statistics on central government monthly salaries correspond mainly to the statistics on local government monthly salaries.

Coherence - internal

The data in the statistics on central government salaries are internally coherent. The data source is the same, and uniform earnings concepts are applied to the data.

The production process of the statistics is described in various documents which can be found on the statistics production network drive.

Source data and data collections

Source data

The source data for the statistics are the salary and employment relationship data in the Tahti information system.

Data collection

Palkeet delivers the Tahti data as line transfer to Statistics Finland’s Data Collection unit.

Frequency of data collection

The data for the statistics are collected annually.

Methods

Data compilation

The data processing is done using the payroll application, and the SAS and SQL tools. If necessary, observations which should not be included in the statistics are removed from the final statistics. The classifications of employment relationship data may also be changed as necessary.

Data validation

The quality of the data is analysed concerning the number of employees, employment and earnings data and the classifications used.

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Social Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics. 

Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.  

Further information: Statistical legislation 

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable. 

Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi) 

Confidentiality - data treatment

A key rule of data protection is to avoid publishing statistical data in a form that could reveal the identity of an individual or organisation, or a characteristic related to them. In the case of statistics on central government salaries, this means that it should not be possible to identify an individual and their salary information, or an individual government agency based on the data published. Threshold values and suppression are used to protect data.

Release policy

Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service. 

Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland 

Data sharing

The data are part of Finland’s Structure of Earnings statistics, which in turn are part of the EU’s Structure of Earnings statistics. The national Structure of Earnings statistics are available through Statistics Finland’s research services. In addition, the statistics on central government salaries are also available subject to charge either separately or as part of the Structure of Earnings statistics. The data are published so that they cannot be linked to an individual person or agency.

Accessibility and clarity

Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.   

In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases. 

Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.   

Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service. 

Data revision - policy

Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.

The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before. 

Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data. 

Quality assessment

The data are collected and verified by the Finnish Government Shared Services Centre for Finance and HR (Palkeet). In addition, Statistics Finland’s own experts carry out a quality assessment of the data before the statistical data are published.

Quality assurance

Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The frameworks complement each other. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. 

Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi) 

User access

Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published. 

Further information: Publication principles for statistics 

Unless otherwise separately stated in connection with the product, data or service concerned, Statistics Finland is the producer of the data and the owner of the copyright. The terms of use for statistical data. 

Statistical experts

Matti Lahdenmäki
Senior Statistician
029 551 3690

The documentation released before 5.4.2022 can be found on the archive pages of the statistics.

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