22.6.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The statistics on energy supply and consumption present data on total energy consumption, production and consumption of electricity, and imports and exports of energy.

Statistical population

The population of the statistics comprises all units producing and consuming energy products in Finland, as well as those engaged in international trade in energy products. Other data from statistics on the energy topic are used as sources in the compilation of the statistics on energy supply and consumption. Where necessary, the data obtained from different sources are raised to cover the whole population. The raises are based on data covering one or more previous years.

Statistical unit

The basic units of the statistics are all units producing and consuming energy products in Finland, as well as those engaged in international trade in energy products.

Unit of measure

The measurement units used are joule (J), watt-hour (Wh), tonne of oil equivalent (ktoe), tonne (t), cubic metre (m3), percentage (%) and calorific value (J/kg tai J/m3).

The used size categories are kilo (k, 103), mega (M, 106), giga (G, 109), tera (T, 1012) and peta (P, 1015).

Reference period

Data from the statistics are published quarterly and annually. Preliminary quarterly data are published at a lag of around three months after the end of the statistical reference period. Preliminary quarterly data are updated into final data in connection with the annual release in December of the statistical reference year. Monthly, quarterly and annual data are always consistent with each other. Monthly level data are published in connection with quarterly and annual releases.

Reference area

The data cover regionally the whole of Finland.

Sector coverage

The statistics cover on the level of Finland data on total energy consumption by energy source, final energy consumption by sector, acquisition and production of electricity by energy source, consumption of electricity by sector, imports and exports of energy products by country, consumption of fossil and renewable fuels, production and consumption of district heat, and energy consumption intransport. 

Time coverage

Time coverage of data by topic:
  • Total energy consumption: annual data starting from 1970 and quarterly data from 2010.
  • Electricity supply and consumption: annual data starting from 1960 and quarterly data from 1990.
  • Imports and exports of energy: annual and quarterly data starting from 2010.
  • Energy consumption in transport: annual data starting from 1990.
  • Production and consumption of district heat: annual data starting from 1970.
  • Final energy consumption by sector: annual data starting from 1970.
  • Production and consumption of biogas by plant type: annual data starting from 2017.
  • CO2 emissions from fuel combustion: annual data starting from 1970 and quarterly data from 2010.

Frequency of dissemination

Data on oil sales are published monthly. Preliminary data on total consumption are published quarterly and final data are published once a year. The time series data are revised if necessary in connection with quarterly and annual releases.

Concepts

12-month moving total

Total for the latest twelve months.

For example, the 12-month moving total for March is obtained by adding up data from the beginning of the previous year's April until the end of the current's year's March. Respectively, the total for April is obtained by adding up data from the beginning of the previous year's May until the end of the current year's April. Thus, the difference between the 12-month moving totals of April and March gives the difference between the previous year's and the current year's data for April.

Energy intensity

Energy intensity is defined as the ratio of total energy consumption to gross domestic product.

Final energy consumption

Final energy consumption measures the consumption of electricity and heat, fuels for space heating, transport fuels and fuels for industrial processes. It differs from total consumption in that energy transmission and distribution losses have been removed from it. Thus, it represents the final amount of energy left at the disposal of households and other consumers.

Heating degree day (HDD)

Figures describing the annual heating requirement in different localities have been calculated for indoor temperature of 17°C assuming that heating is stopped in spring when outdoor temperature rises above 10°C and started in autumn when it falls below 12°C. Figures for heating degree days are produced by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. These statistics have been compiled by using the heating degree day figure for Jyväskylä to describe the average heating requirement for the whole of Finland.

Oil

Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Refinery gas (1111)
- LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) (1112)
- Naphtha (1121)
- Aviation gasoline (1123)
- Kerosene (jet fuel) (1131)
- Other kerosenes (1132)
- Light fuel oil (heating fuel oil) (1134)
- Gasoil (for non-road use) (1135)
- Other medium distillates (1139)
- Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content < 1% (1141)
- Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content = 1% (1142)
- Other heavy distillates (1143)
- Petroleum coke (1150)
- Recycled and waste oils (1160)
- Other petroleum products (1190).

Other energy sources

Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Vegetable-based fuels (3170)
- Animal-based fuels (3180)
- Landfill gas (3211)
- Biogas from wastewater treatment (3212)
- Industrial biogas (3213)
- Other biogas (3219)
- Liquid biofuels (3220)
- Recovered fuels (3231)
- Demolition wood (3232)
- Impregnated wood (chemically treated) (3233)-
- Other mixed fuels (3239)
- Gasified waste (3240)
- Plastics waste (4911)
- Rubber waste (4912)
- Hazardous waste (4913)
- Other waste (4919)
- Exothermic heat from industry (4920)
- Electricity, used in electric boilers and heat pumps (4940)
- Hydrogen (4980)
- Other non-specified energy sources (4990).

Peat

Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Milled peat (2110)
- Sod peat (2120)
- Peat pellets and briquettes (2130).

Petajoule

Petajoule (PJ) is a unit of energy used for expressing the energy contents of fuels and other energy sources. 1 PJ = 1,000 TJ; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

Total energy consumption

Total energy consumption describes total commensurate consumption of domestic energy sources and imported energy in Finland. It includes fuels used in the production and processing of energy, and energy used in final consumption, including transport fuels and fuels used for heating buildings.

Wood fuels

Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Firewood (stems and split firewood) (3111)
- Chips from roundwood (3112)
- Forest residue chips (3113)
- Bark (3121)
- Sawdust, cutter shavings etc. (3122)
- Wood residue chips (3123)
- Unspecified industrial wood residue (3128)
- Other industrial wood residue (3129)
- Black liquor and other concentrated liquors (3130)
- Other by-products from wood processing industry (3140)
- Recovered wood (3150)
- Wood pellets and briquettes (3160).

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

The data published in the statistics are based on Statistics Finland's data collections and data collected from several different data sources or on estimates (preliminary data). The data published quarterly are preliminary and they are updated as final when the annual statistics are completed in December of the statistical reference year. Quarterly data are benchmarked with the ratio of consumption to final annual data when the final annual statistics are completed. The main reasons for revisions to the data are replacing estimates concerning missing source data at the time of publication with actual source data. The released data can also be corrected retrospectively if significant changes have been found in the data sources or calculation models. The coefficients of the fuel classification are used in unit conversion of the volume data of fuels. In addition, data calculated in other statistics of the energy topic are used as source data for forming the statistics on energy supply and consumption, so the accuracy of the released data is also dependent on the source statistics.

Timeliness

Preliminary data are published quarterly approximately three months from the end of the statistical reference quarter. Final data are published once a year at a lag of around 11 months from the end of the statistical reference year. Preliminary quarterly data are updated into final data in connection with the annual release.

Punctuality

There is no delay in releasing data for the statistics on energy supply and consumption. The data are published on the days indicated in the release calendar.

Data revision - practice

The changes are updated into the database in connection with the following release at the latest.

Processing error

Examples of possible errors in statistical releases include erroneous numbers in release texts, figures or tables. Unlike revisions, error situations are unexpected deviations in the normal production of statistics.

Errors are corrected and the users are informed about them as quickly as possible. Statistics Finland informs about significant errors to the same extent and through the same channels as in the releasing of the original data.

Notations about corrections and their points of time are added to the corrected releases. Notations of corrections are added to the table reference section in the StatFin tables.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The data of the statistics on energy supply and consumption are utilised in international reporting by Eurostat and the IEA. The bases for division used in international reporting are, however, in places different from those used in national data, for which reason the figures of the national statistics cannot be directly compared with the Finnish figures reported by Eurostat, for example.

Comparability - over time

The time series presented are comparable with each other, apart from some exceptions, the most significant of which are indicated separately in the figures and footnotes of the tables. The data are comparable with other energy topic statistics.

Coherence - cross domain

The data are consistent with the data published by Statistics Finland's greenhouse gas inventory unit (GHG). Coherence analyses are made for the data at the enterprise and unit level with the GHG to ensure comparability.

Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics

The data published quarterly are preliminary and they are benchmarked to final annual data in connection with the annual release. The quarterly and annual data are thus coherent.

Coherence - internal

The figures of the statistics on energy supply and consumption are internally coherent. The figures of the statistics are coherent with other statistics on the energy topic, with the exception of energy use in manufacturing, where the figures differ somewhat from figures reported for manufacturing in other energy statistics. Some of the figures of the statistics on energy use in manufacturing are benchmarked to those of other statistics, some are based on data collected with a sample survey, whereby differences arise both from divergent source data and from different calculation methods.

Source data and data collections

Source data

The source data for the statistics are data collections of energy statistics and several register data sets. Some of the data collections are made in cooperation with industry associations.

The key data used in the production of the statistics are:
  • Statistics Finland’s own data collections:
    • Inquiry on sales and production of peat. The data collection concerns the biggest producers of peat, which cover around 85 per cent of all production and sales of peat. The inquiry collects data on the sales and volume of production of milled and sod peat.
    • Sales and inventory collection of liquid fuels. The inquiry includes the most significant enterprises in the field of oil and biofuel. The inquiry collects data on the sales of oil and bioliquids by product category and on the volume of inventories.
    • Inquiry on fuels in manufacturing. The inquiry includes all groups in the forest industry with significant use of fuels. The inquiry collects data on the monthly use of fuels by groups.
    • Inquiry on production and consumption of biogas. The inquiry collects data on the volume, use, sales and raw materials of biogas production. The distributors of transport biogas are asked about the acquisition and sources of biogas and the sales of biogas by type and quality of gas. The inquiry includes biogas production plants (landfills, industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants, co-digestion plants and farms) and distributors of transport biogas.
    • Inquiry on use and storage of hard coal. The inquiry covers significant enterprises consuming and storing hard coal as fuel in energy production. The inquiry collects data on the consumption of hard coal and the size of stocks of hard coal.
    • Inquiry on production of heat. The inquiry on heat production collects data on the production, acquisition and consumption of industrial and district heat in the plant area and on fuels consumed in production. The inquiry concerns producers of heat whose annual production totals 10,000 megawatt hours (MWh) or whose heat production capacity is at least five megawatts (MW).
  • Data of the Energy Authority:
    • Emissions trading data. The data contain data on carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption in combustion plants with a capacity of over 20 MW and in some steel, mineral and forest industry plants and processes.
  • Data of Finnish Energy:
    • Inquiry on production and use of electricity. The inquiry annually collects data by type of plant on production of electricity and heat produced in connection with electricity, as well as fuels consumed for production. In practice, the data cover all electricity networks and the electricity sold through them.
    • District heating statistics. The statistics contain data on the production of district heat, fuels consumed on production and the use of heat by sector. In addition, statistical data have been collected from those heat suppliers that sell the heat they produce for delivery to the end customers of district heating plants included in the statistics.
  • Foreign trade statistics of Finnish Customs. The statistics contain data on Finland's international trade broken down by CN heading. The foreign trade statistics provide data on the volumes of imports and exports of energy products.
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    • Statistics on wood in energy generation. The statistics belong to the Official Statistics of Finland (OSF). The statistics contain annual data on the use of solid wood fuels in heat and power plants.
  • Tax Administration. The Tax Administration provides data on the amounts of taxes and tax-like payments collected on fuels, peat and natural gas and the amounts of fuels directed at them as energy.
  • Finnish Natural Gas Association. The Finnish Natural Gas Association delivers annual data on the volume of natural gas fed into the national network and on the volume of natural gas consumption in industry, transport and space heating.
  • Statistics Finland's Greenhouse gas inventory unit. The greenhouse gas inventory unit calculates annual data on carbon dioxide emissions caused by the energy use of fuels.

Data collection

Data collections for energy statistics are made with web or Excel questionnaires. Register data collected by other authorities come to Statistics Finland according to an agreed schedule.

Frequency of data collection

Below is a list of the frequencies of Statistics Finland's own data collections.
  • Inquiry on sales and production of peat: sales data by quarter, production data annually
  • Inquiry on sales and inventories of oil: monthly
  • Inquiry on fuels in manufacturing: quarterly
  • Inquiry on production and consumption of biogas: yearly
  • Inquiry on consumption of hard coal: quarterly
  • Inquiry on heat production (LATU): yearly

Cost and burden

Efforts have been made to minimise the response burden so that there is no overlapping data collection.

Methods

Data compilation

Errors detected in the data are corrected manually, missing data of the most significant respondents are imputed and the response data of the random sample are raised to the whole population level with inflating coefficients according to the sample design. Primarily, the aim is to clarify the errors detected directly from the original provider of the data.

Data validation

Comparisons with other data, earlier periods and other observations in the data are used in the validation of the data. The data of the most important respondents are examined in detail.

Adjustment

The statistics comply with the standards applied to international statistics (Eurostat, IEA), and as they change, Statistics Finland updates its own practices to correspond to the changed standards.

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Economic Statistics/Energy, environment and greenhouse gases

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics.

Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.

Further information: Statistical legislation

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violationof data protection is punishable.

Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality is taken into account when data are published and it is ensured that the data or development of a single enterprise cannot be deduced on the basis of the results.

The use of the data for scientific research and statistical surveys is possible only on the basis of a separate decision on user licence and in unidentifiable form. Further information about user licences.

Release policy

Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service.

Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland

Data sharing

Preliminary data from the statistics on energy supply and consumption are published as releases quarterly at a lag of three months and final data once a year at a lag of 11 months. Data on energy supply and consumption are consistent with those of other statistics belonging to the energy topic.

The data of the statistics are supplied to Eurostat in connection with the monthly and annual reports and Eurostat releases the data on its web pages. Finland reports energy statistics to the International Energy Agency IEA.

Accessibility and clarity

Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.

In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.

Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.

Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.

Micro-data access

Unit-level data of the statistics are used only for the production of statistics and non-statistical authors do not have access to the micro-data.

Data revision - policy

Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published –are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.

The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.

Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.

Quality assessment

The quality of the statistics on energy supply and consumption is evaluated in several different stages of the statistical process. The production process of the statistics is linked to other statistics on the energy topic in order to ensure a coherent whole. If necessary, the data of the statistics are revised in connection with the annual release.

Quality assurance

Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The frameworks complement each other. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.

Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

User access

Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published.

Further information: Publication principles for statistics

Unless otherwise separately stated in connection with the product, data or service concerned, Statistics Finland is the producer of the data and the owner of the copyright. The terms of use for statistical data.

Statistical experts

Aleksi Sandberg
Senior Statistician
029 551 3326