# Concepts: C

The concepts described on these pages are words and expressions used in statistics with a specific, limited meaning. In everyday speech the word may have a different meaning. The same concept may mean a different thing in different sets of statistics. For example, the concept “unemployed” has three different definitions.

In connection with each definition you can find information about which sets of statistics use the concept. If you are looking for statistical figures, go from the definition to the statistics page.

The classification of environmental protection activities. For example waste water management, waste management, air protection, nature conservation, and administration and other environmental protection.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Finnish Customs compiles statistics on imports of goods at CIF value. In balance of payments, imports of goods are at FOB value. To attain the FOB value, freight and insurance costs between the ports of loading and destination are deducted from imports of goods.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Transport within one country with a vehicle registered in another country.

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Pay adjustments are used to estimate the effect of an entrepreneur's unpaid work input on the enterprise's profitability. The purpose of the pay adjustment is to provide a more accurate picture than before of profitability in the industries where the significance of unpaid work input by entrepreneurs themselves is considerable.

The pay adjustment is made by first specifying in detail the annual unpaid work input performed by the entrepreneur. Then the total amount of wages and salaries for the unpaid work input is estimated.

It should be noted that the pay adjustment is only a calculatory item hampering profitability. It differs from other profit and loss account items in that it is not an expense item or payment actually incurred. The pay adjustment is based on the idea that the business activity should produce for the entrepreneur at least reasonable earnings for the annual work input.

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A camping vehicle is a passenger car or coach designed for a special purpose and equipped with an accommodation compartment with the following firmly attached minimum equipment:
- seats and a table (the table may be easily removable)
- beds that can be convertible from seats (sleeping accommodation must be dimensioned for adults)
- cooking facilities (allowed if firmly attached to accommodation compartment)
- stowage space (adequate for stowing camping equipment, kitchenware, etc.)

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An order is cancelled, when the producer of a commodity or service considers that a previously made agreement is no longer in force. Cancelled orders are not taken into account ex post in the calculation of the index of new orders.

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Percentage of the production capacity of manufacturing that is in use during a statistical reference month. The statistics are based on data collected monthly from establishments.

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The capital account covers capital transfers and the acquisition/disposal of non-produced non-financial assets.

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Capital costs refer to the costs of capital tied to real estate, comprising interests and calculated depreciations. The interest is comprised of the return requirement set on tied capital. Capital costs include costs relating to the purchase and ownership of real estate, and costs relating to encumbrances or statutory obligations.

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In inward foreign direct investments, the capital invested on net by a foreign direct investor in Finnish direct investment enterprises in a given period. Correspondingly, in outward investments, the capital invested on net by a Finnish direct investor in foreign direct investment enterprises in a given period.

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Of bonds: reference loans (benchmark loans), debentures, bonds with equity warrants, convertible bonds, perpetuals and other capital market claims (excl. shares).

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Capital taxes (D.91) consist of taxes levied at irregular and very infrequent intervals on the values of the assets or net worth owned by institutional units or on the values of assets transferred between institutional units as a result of legacies, gifts between individuals or other transfers (e.g. inheritance tax, death duty and gift tax).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A car is a car without own engine attached to a train intended for the transport of either persons or goods by rail.

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Towed vehicle built for touring purposes.

(NB. Data on the Region of Åland are not included as of 1990.)

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Camp sites let pitches for tents, caravans, mobile homes and similar shelter to tourists who want to stay on a "touring" pitch for only a couple of consecutive days or weeks, as well as to people who want to hire a "fixed" pitch for a season or a year.

In the Finnish Accommodation statistics, only pitches provided with electric sockets are counted in the accommodation capacity corresponding to one lodging unit. In the EU and other international tourism statistics 4 bed-places are counted per one pitch. Besides camp sites hotels and other accommodation establishments (e.g. holiday villages) may have caravan pitches provided with sockets which are also counted in the accommodation capacity in Finland.

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most significant greenhouse gas produced by humankind. Most carbon dioxide produced by humankind originates from the use of fossil fuels (including oil, coal and natural gas). Another important source of emissions is the destruction of tropical forests and other land-use changes.

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A joint measure of greenhouse gas emissions by which to sum up the effect of various greenhouse gas emissions on the acceleration of the greenhouse effect.

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Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative forcing effect by elevating con-centrations of methane and tropospheric ozone. Carbon monoxide is pro-duced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds. It is widely used in the chemical industry.

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A case lapses when the prosecutor or complainant withdraws the charges. The charges can be withdrawn, for example, if in the light of new evidence, there are no longer grounds for accusing the accused or if the complainant no longer wishes to demand punishment.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Financial asset securities + cash and bank deposits from the balance sheet of the municipality/joint municipal board.

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A name and the corresponding code given to each activity.

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Central bank reserve assets are statistically compiled in accordance with the instructions of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Central Bank (ECB). The reserve assets comprise monetary gold, special drawing rights (SDRs), the reserve position in the IMF and other reserve assets. Other reserve assets include currency and deposits, securities, financial derivatives and other claims. The exchange rate used is the spot rate prevailing at the value date, and the items are entered at market prices.

Data on reserve assets in the balance of payments are based on the Bank of Finland's book-keeping.

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Central government expenditure refers to central government budget expenditure as reported in the final central government accounts. The appropriations transferred to the next year are included according to their actual use during the year in question. Central government expenditure does not include unincorporated state enterprises or extra-budgetary funds belonging to the state sector, but it does include transfers into them.

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Central government guarantee data include such guarantees for which the state is liable.
Guarantees are arrangements whereby the guarantor undertakes to a lender that if a borrower defaults, the guarantor will make good the loss the lender would otherwise suffer. A fee is often collected for providing a guarantee.

Guarantees can also be provided for financial assets held by some unit. In this case, the commitment relates to cover losses related to a decrease in the value of assets or shortfalls in the recovery of the asset in full and in such cases there are various ways of activating the guarantor's obligations.

Central government guarantees also include guarantees administered by non-government units on behalf of general government or as part of the policy objectives of general government. An example of this is the export credit guarantees

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Central government tax revenue refers to the accruals-based tax revenue presented in the final central government accounts.

The tax is calculated according to the national accounts accounting practice, and it is divided into five groups: income and property tax, tax levied on turnover, excise duty, other taxes and other tax-like revenue.

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An early education centre is an early childhood education and care site where early childhood education and care is provided by employees meeting statutory qualification requirements. Centre-based early education is early childhood education and care provided in an early education centre

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A certificate of deposit is a zero-interest negotiable bearer instrument issued by the Bank of Finland or deposit banks. Certificate of deposit bearer instruments issued abroad are included in certificates of deposit.

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Cessation date is the cessation date of the Business ID of a unit. The data are obtained from the Tax Administration.

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Cessation form describes how the activity of an enterprise has finished. Cessation forms include death, change of legal form, merger and division.

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In the chain index the comparison takes place always between successive calculation periods. In the chain index the change in two calculation periods is used to take forward the index point figure of the desired base period. In the chain index the weights are changed in principle in each calculation period.

At times the chain index is also mentioned in such cases where the comparison period is retained fixed in comparisons within the year, but the comparison period and the weight structure of the index is changed whenever the year changes.

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In statistics on central government productivity the change in labour input is the change in the amount of work (staff-years, working days or working hours)

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In statistics on central government productivity labour productivity is obtained by dividing the output volume indicator with the labour input volume indicator.

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The change in the provision for outstanding claims is the difference of the provision for outstanding claims at the beginning and end of the financial period. The change in the provision for outstanding claims is visible in the profit and loss account and claims incurred directed to the financial period can be determined as the sum of it and claims paid.

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Calculated as the difference of the provision for unearned premiums at the beginning and end of the financial period. The change in the provision for unearned premiums is visible in the profit and loss account and earned premium directed to the financial period can be determined as the sum of premium income and provision for unearned premiums.

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In statistics on central government productivity the change in total input equals the deflated change of the total operating expenditure item in central government commercial accounting. Personnel costs, depreciations and other operating costs are deflated with separate cost indices.

In statistics on local government productivity the change in total input equals the year-on-year change in the sum of the volumes of the national accounts items local government sector intermediate consumption at purchaser's prices by industry, consumption of fixed capital and compensations of employees.

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In statistics on local government productivity the change in total productivity is the quotient of the change in productivity and the change in total input.

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Change of population is defined as increase of population added up with register corrections.

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Changes in inventories are measured by the value of the entries into inventories less the value of withdrawals and the value of any recurrent losses of goods held in inventories. Inventories can consist of materials and supplies, work-in-progress, finished goods and goods for resale.

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Charcoal is a solid fossil fuel with an effective thermal value of more than 24MJ/kg in ashless substance. Coal is mainly graded according to the amount of volatile matter it contains and its thermal value.

Metallurgical coal and coke produced from it are not regarded as charcoal.

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Charges must be brought if there is probable cause to suspect that a person is guilty of an offence. After the pre-trial investigation the matter is transferred to the prosecutor who considers whether charges will be brought. The prosecutor evaluates whether an act fulfils the essential elements of an offence and if there is sufficient evidence.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Part of the charge for common expenses covering the dwelling’s share of liabilities of long-term expenses, such as expenses arising from the acquisition, construction, renovation and renewal of real estate and buildings, unless otherwise stated in the articles of association.

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The charge for common capital expenditures is used to pay the dwelling’s share of liabilities of the housing company loan.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A charge is dismissed when the court deems that no offence took place or the court considers there was not sufficient evidence of guilt so that the accused could be sentenced.

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In the family statistics children comprise the following persons living with their parents:
- biological children,
- biological children, adopted children and confirmed children of one of the spouses.

Foster children and children in the care of the family are not classified as children.

The definition of child has changed since 1990. A child is now defined as a person who lives with his or her parents irrespective of his or her marital status, unless the person has a spouse or children who live in the same household-dwelling unit. In 1990 only unmarried persons were counted as children. So while in 1990 widowed or divorced persons living with their parents were classified as not belonging to families, since 1992 they have been regarded as members of the family.

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Civil matters are disputes between private persons or enterprises which are settled impartially in a court of justice. Civil matters may deal with compensation for damages, annulment of purchase or validity of contracts. District Courts also decide on undisputed demands for payment and evictions.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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This category includes claims in respect of hire purchase contracts, financial services of hire purchase transactions, financing of hire purchase sales, financing of acquisitions, and other financing based on a hire purchase contract or a related contract.

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Claims incurred consist of claims paid and changes in the provision for outstanding claims, from which reinsurers' shares are deducted. The part of claims to be paid is allocated to claims incurred that are directed to the financial period. Claims incurred are thus recorded on accrual basis.

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Claims paid are recorded as expenses for the period when the benefits are paid before the reinsurers' share. The recording of claims paid is thus made on accrual basis. In addition to benefits, claims paid also include claims handling expenses.

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Cleaning costs are real estate cleaning costs based on contracts or invoicing with separate enterprises.

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In Statistics Finland's statistics on bankruptcies, a closed bankruptcy refers to bankruptcy proceedings that have been finalised in a District Court.

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A community engaged in economic activity to benefit its members, whose number of members and capital are varying. The members participate in the activity by exploiting the services of the community. The founders of a co-operative society must number at least one. A co-operative society is entered into the Trade Register. A co-operative bank is a co-operative society engaged in banking activity.

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A vehicle manufactured for the transportation of people. Space for 8 or more persons in addition to the driver.

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Coal has been formed from plant residues hundreds of millions of years ago. In energy statistics coal refers to the energy sources of charcoal (1211,1212), lignite (1221), other coal (1222,1228,1229), coke, and blast furnace and coke oven gases obtained as a by-product from the production of iron.

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In these statistics, the coefficient for specific annual consumption describes the consumption of different energy sources per cubic metre built (kWh/m3).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A cohabiting couple is defined as two spouseless adults of different sex aged 18 and over and occupying the same dwelling on a permanent basis, provided their age difference is less than 16 years and they are not siblings. In case the couple has a common child these specifications do not apply. Same-sex persons living together are not considered cohabiting couples unless they have a common child in the family. As a rule, these are female couples in which one woman is the biological mother of the common child and the other is the second mother established for the child (Parenthood Act 775/2022, Section 5).

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Collective agreement sector is determined in the collective labour agreement applied in the employment relationship concerned. In the municipal sector the collective agreement sectors are specified in the main contract between the Commission for Local Authority Employers and employee organisations. A collective labour agreement is an agreement between an employee organisation and an employer or an employer organisation on the sector-specific terms of employment. Among others, the pay, working hours, vacations and other benefits that apply within the scope of the agreement are agreed on in the collective agreement. The agreements are often sector specific, but are also bound by the occupational status of the wage or salary earner concerned and are concluded for a fixed period.

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This refers to combined heat and power production where backpressure or bled steam is utilised as district or process heat, and to electricity generation in engine or gas turbine-operated production machinery where the heat of exhaust gases or the cooling water is used as an energy source. Higher efficiency ratios are achieved with combined production than with separate production, in other words, better use is made of the fuels needed in the production.

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Proceedings in a civil matter or a criminal matter commence and the case becomes pending in a general court when the application for a summons is filed with the registry of the court. In administrative judicial matters, the proceedings commence and the case becomes pending when e.g. the appeal document is filed with the registry of the administrative court.

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Commercial aviation is commercial air traffic, in which passengers, freight or mail are transported in exchange for a fee or rent. Commercial air traffic comprises scheduled and chartered flights and air taxi traffic. Commercial aviation does not include general aviation, training or military flights.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Commission income (finrep -reporting)
The item includes commission income from security brokering, clearing and settlement, asset management, custody services, administrative service to institutional customers, payment traffic, distribution channel commissions, structured products, servicing commissions from securitisation activities, commissions from lending, granted guarantees and other received commissions.

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The time period within which the targets assigned in the Kyoto Protocol on emission limitations and reductions must be reached. The first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol runs from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012.

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Guarantees, pledges and mortgages given as collateral for a liability of a third party.

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Commodities refer to tangible or intangible instruments that directly (consumables) or indirectly (capital goods) satisfy people's needs.

Tangible assets comprise both goods, as well as materials and supplies. Services are intangible assets. (Other intangible assets can be, for example, data in digital format or the production right of some tangible asset).

Commodity production (industrial output) also includes so-called industrial services. Industrial services include remodelling, processing, working and other such finishing, maintenance, repairs and installations. Industrial services have their own PRODCOM service titles in the commodity statistics' PRODCOM product name register.

Some industrial services are, however, classified as non-industrial services in the Standard Industrial Classification (TOL), for example, maintenance and repair of vehicles and repair and maintenance of office equipment and computers, so they do not belong to the inquiry on manufacturing commodities. This also applies to design and programming of software, as well as consulting and other computer and related activities.

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Community service is a punishment imposed in place of unconditional sentence of at most eight months. Community service can be sentenced unless unconditional sentences of imprisonment, earlier community service orders or other weighty reasons are to be considered bars to the imposition of the community service order. (Criminal Code, Chapter 7, Section 11).

Community service may not be sentenced for the following offences: refusing military service (1438/2007), refusing civil military service (1446/2007), and a civil military service offence (1446/2007).

Community service may be imposed for 14 to 240 hours. Community service may also be imposed alongside an over eight-month long conditional punishment of at most 90 hours.

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Commuting refers to going to work outside the area where a person is resident. Net commuting refers to the difference between the numbers working outside the area and the numbers coming into the area to work from elsewhere. A positive net commuting value indicates that the number of people coming into the area to work exceeds the number of those going to work elsewhere from it. Net commuting can also be expressed as a value between two individual areas.

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Parliamentary elections, European Parliamentary elections, municipal elections and county elections:

The order of candidates belonging to a party that is not in an electoral alliance or to a joint electoral list is determined by the number of votes cast for them personally. The candidates are assigned a comparative index. For the first candidate on a party list or a joint electoral list the comparative index is the total number of votes cast for the party or joint electoral list, the second candidate's comparative index is one-half of that and the third candidate's one-third etc. The comparative indices of the candidates from parties belonging to an electoral alliance are based on the total number of votes cast for the electoral alliance. The comparative index of a candidate not belonging to a joint electoral list is the total number of votes cast for him/her personally.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The compensation of labour force, i.e. wage and salaries, is the price of labour input from the perspective of the producer. When examining the effect of the change in the quality of labour force to the change in productivity, the hours worked by employees with different types of educational levels are weighted by the share of this employee group’s compensations of labour force in all compensations of labour force.

When compensations of labour force are deducted from the industry's value added, capital compensation remains. When examining the effect of capital services on productivity, the amount of capital compensations is used for calculating weights of capital good types by industry (cf. compensations of labour force). The amount of compensations of capital is also used in the calculation of the internal rate of return.

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In the statistics on coercive measures, the complainant is not necessarily the actual victim of the offence. A person deceased as a result of an offence or an event leading to an investigation is recorded in the PATJA system sometimes as other than the complainant and the beneficiaries of the deceased person are recorded as the complainant. In offences against minors, the guardian of the actual victim is also usually recorded as the complainant.

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In the statistics on comprehensive school education and on entrance to education completers of comprehensive education refer to pupils who have satisfactorily completed the full comprehensive school syllabus and received a school-leaving certificate from comprehensive school. The full comprehensive school syllabus can be completed in comprehensive schools, upper secondary general schools and folk high schools.

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In the statistics on upper secondary general education a completer of full upper secondary general school curriculum refers to a student who has completed satisfactorily the national syllabi contained in upper secondary general school curriculum and received for it a school-leaving certificate from upper secondary general school. Full upper secondary general school syllabus can be completed in upper secondary general schools or folk high schools.

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General education intended for everyone, with a statutory extent of the syllabus of nine years.

Comment:

Comprehensive education is provided in comprehensive schools. In addition, it can also be provided in folk high schools, general upper secondary schools for adults or other educational institutions. By participating in comprehensive education or acquiring the corresponding knowledge in other ways, the statutory syllabus of the Basic Education Act 628/1998 is completed.

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Education aiming at a primary and lower secondary education certificate intended for persons over the compulsory school age who have not completed the comprehensive education syllabus.

Comment:

In comprehensive education for adults, people over the compulsory school age can also supplement their comprehensive education qualification or improve their grades in the subjects of comprehensive education.

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An educational institution providing basic general education to an entire age cohort.

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Pupils in compulsory school age who have satisfactorily completed the full syllabus of comprehensive school education and received a school-leaving certificate from comprehensive school education.

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Computer services include hardware, software and data processing services. The item comprises hardware and software consultancy and implementation services; maintenance and repair of computers and peripheral equipment; disaster recovery services, provision of advice and assistance on matters related to the management of computer resources; analysis, design and programming of systems ready to use, including web page development and design; technical consultancy related to software; licence fees collected for the use of software (other than ordered by the customer); development, production, supply and documentation of customised software, including operating systems made on order for specific users; systems maintenance and other support services, such as training provided as part of consultancy; data processing services, such as data entry, tabulation and processing on a time-share basis; web page hosting services, i.e. provision of server space on the Internet to host customers’ web pages; and computer facilities management.

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Electric energy produced by cooling down steam with water without using the heat energy of the steam.

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A prisoner serving a fixed-term imprisonment sentence can be discharged conditionally before the end of the term of punishment.

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The district court may also issue a driving ban as conditional if the right to drive is necessary for the person for whom the driving ban is imposed due to profession or other weighty reason, and the act did not cause any danger to the safety of others. The term for the conditional driving ban is at least one year and at most three years. (Driving Licence Act 386/2011).

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A sentence of imprisonment of no more than two years can be imposed as a conditional sentence as long as there are no reasons, such as previous offences, on the basis of which the court must impose an unconditional sentence. When the imprisonment is sentenced as conditional, the enforcement of the punishment is postponed for a probationary period. The probationary period for conditional imprisonment is at least one year and at most three years. The probationary period begins at the pronouncement or the issue of the judgment. (Criminal Code, Chapter 2b, Sections 3 to 5).

A supplementary fine may also be imposed in connection with conditional imprisonment. If the conditional imprisonment is over one year long, community service may also be imposed.

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Confinement to barracks is a disciplinary punishment for a soldier or other person subject to Chapter 45 of the Criminal Code (Criminal Code, Chapter 6, Section 1). Confinement to barracks is ordered or sentenced for one to 15 days or if there are several offences, for at most 25 days (Act on military disciplinary procedure and crime prevention in defence forces 255/2014).

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Financing of the accounts payable of a company that have originated from acquisitions of current assets and fixed assets based on a financing agreement between the company and the credit institution. Accounts payable funding is usually secured by a bank guarantee.

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Conscientious objectors are defined as people who according to the data of the Ministry of Employment and the Economy have been doing their non-military service during the survey week.

Community service is based on the national defence obligation and also on the freedom of religion and conscience set out in the Constitution of Finland. A person liable for military service can, on serious grounds of conscience founded on religious or ethical conviction, be exempted from military service upon application, at which time he is ordered into non-military service, which is a substitute for military service in peacetime under the Finnish Conscription Act (1950/452).

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When considering the charges the prosecutor decides, on the basis of the material compiled during the pre-trial investigation, whether prosecution is warranted. The prosecutor must evaluate if an act fulfils the essential elements of an offence and secondly if, on the basis of the material compiled during the pre-trial investigation, there is probable cause to support the suspicion of guilt, in other words the existence of sufficient evidence. If the prosecutor finds sufficient evidence, he/she must decide whether or not to bring charges in the matter in a court of justice. With certain conditions as set out in law the alternatives to pressing charges are issuing of a summary penal judgment or decision to waive prosecution.

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Financial assets and liabilities can be presented in consolidated form, i.e., after elimination of intra-sectorial transactions within sub-sectors (e.g. debts between municipalities) and between sub-sectors (including municipalities' debts to the state, employment pension corporations and other social security institutions within the general government sector). Consolidated data only show the relative positions of the sectors.

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The division into constituencies refers to the regional division of seats to be filled in the election.

County elections:
In county elections the constituency is the wellbeing services county.

Parliamentary elections:
For the purpose of parliamentary elections, the country has been divided into constituencies on the basis of regions. In parliamentary elections the seats in parliament are allocated to constituencies according to a Government decision. According to law, one representative is elected from the Ahvenanmaa constituency and the remaining 199 seats are allocated proportionally to the other constituencies according to their population of Finnish citizens.

Other elections:
The whole country is one single constituency in Presidential elections and in the European Parliamentary elections. Municipalities are the constituencies of municipal elections. Therefore, when counting the votes in these elections, seats are not allocated to different regions. All statistics do, however, present results also by constituency in order to maintain the comparability of different elections.

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The basic unit (in addition to political parties) for nominating candidates in parliamentary elections, European Parliamentary elections, the Presidential election, municipal elections and county elecions. (See nomination of candidates.)

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Construction covers the creation, management, renovation, repair or extension of fixed assets in the form of real estate, land improvements of civil engineering nature and other constructions such as roads, bridges and dams. This also includes related installation and assembly work, site preparation and general construction, as well as specialised services such as painting, plumbing and demolition.

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From the point of view of foreign trade in services, construction abroad refers to short-term (recommendation under 12 months) construction or installation projects performed by enterprises resident in the compiling economy for non-resident economic units. Such projects may involve building, renovation, installation or demolition.

Construction abroad covers all services that form an integral part of construction contracts, including site preparation work, building construction, civil engineering, installation and assembly of machinery, finishing of building exteriors and surroundings, and other construction services such as renting services of construction or demolition equipment with operator.

Installation equipment used in installations is included in construction services.
The residency of an economic unit is not determined by its ownership but by the location of its centre of economic interest, i.e. the country where it operates permanently.

2) Construction in Finland

From the point of view of foreign trade in services, construction in Finland comprises short-term (recommendation under 12 months) construction and installation services provided to residents of the compiling economy by non-resident construction enterprises. Construction in Finland is conceptually identical to construction abroad.

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When a piece of real estate is used, materials and supplies are consumed, such as water and electricity, and these are referred to as consumables.

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The Consumer Confidence Indicator (CCI) expresses consumers’ views and expectations concerning economic development. The Consumer Confidence Indicator is the average of the balance figures for the CCI components. The components are: own economy now, own economy in one year’s time, Finland's economy in one year's time and consumer’s spending money on major purchases within one year. The confidence indicator can range between -100 and +100. The higher the figure, the brighter is the view on the economy.

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The consumer confidence indicator is the mean value of a balance figure based on four questions measuring consumers' expectations over the next 12 months regarding the development of their own economic situation, the Finnish economy, the household's own possibilities to make savings, and the number of unemployed.

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Loans granted to households for the purchase of consumer goods and services intended for personal use.
The item includes all bank account overdrafts and credit card credits, including those on cheque accounts with overdraft facility, credit granted for trips (other than study or business trips), and other credit granted to households for consumption (e.g. on a car, domestic appliances, etc.).

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The real price paid by consumers for a good or service (including taxes, in retail trade).

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A monthly release made on the Consumer Price index material, which contains average prices for certain daily consumer goods and some other simple commodities by major region.

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The statistics on consumer confidence explore consumers’ intentions to use money by target. The measurement unit is ‘per cent of consumers’:

-Buying a new or used passenger car within 12 months
-Buying a dwelling or building a house within 12 months
-Home renovations in the next 12 months
-Acquisitions in the next 6 months: free-time residence, home decoration, household appliances, entertainment electronics, hobby and sports equipment, other vehicle than car, leisure trip in Finland, leisure trip abroad.

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The statistics on consumer confidence examine consumers’ intentions of taking out a loan within 12 months. The measurement unit is ‘per cent of consumers’.

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The statistics on consumer confidence explore consumers’ personal views and expectations concerning the economy. The measurement unit is ‘per cent of consumers’:

-Consumer’s own economy now and in 12 months’ time
-Finland's economy now and in 12 months’ time
-General unemployment in 12 months’ time
-Personal threat of unemployment now
-Change in consumer prices now and in 12 months’ time
-Favourable time for saving, taking out a loan and making major purchases at present
-Consumer’s financial situation now
-Consumer’s saving possibilities within 12 months
-Consumer’s spending money on major purchases within 12 months

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Consumption expenditure by government includes 'other non-market output' and income transfers in kind. 'Other non-market output' is derived by subtracting production for own final use and sales of non-market products from output. Consumption expenditure by government is subdivided in two categories: individual and collective consumption expenditure. Consumption expenditure by government includes e.g. government financed school, health, social and administration services.

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Consumption expenditure of educational institutions is comprised of the consumption expenditure of comprehensive education, upper secondary general education, vocational education, university of applied sciences education, and university education and research.

In respect of educational institutions within the state contribution system, consumption expenditure comprises gross operating expenditure and so-called minor projects as reported in their book-keeping in accordance with legislation on the state contribution system. In vocational education and university of applied sciences education prior 2015 consumption expenditure excludes minor projects. The share of minor projects of the consumption expenditure of vocational education and university of applied sciences education prior 2015 has been partly estimated in time series data. Investment expenditure is not included in consumption expenditure. Consumption expenditure per student has been obtained by dividing the expenditure for an accounting year for each sector of education by the annual mean of number of students during the autumn term. In 1995-2001, calculatory amounts of employer's pension contributions for the teaching personnel of municipalities have been added to the consumption expenditure of comprehensive schools and upper secondary general schools.

Expenditure of comprehensive schools, comprehensive school level special schools and teacher training schools, and other schools comparable to comprehensive schools has been counted as consumption expenditure of comprehensive education. Expenditure of hospital, disabled and state approved schools is included in the figures. Capital costs on internal rents are not included in the expenditure. Since 1999, the expenditure has also included comprehensive school level education provided by folk high schools. Before August 2000, expenditure of preprimary education provided by comprehensive schools is included the expenditure of comprehensive school education. Subject pupils in comprehensive school education are not included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil for the annual and time series data in the data publications since 2020. In the data published in earlier years subject pupils were included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil. The expenditure of municipalities and joint municipal authorities for comprehensive school education does not include value added tax of the repayment system except for minor projects.

Expenditure of upper secondary general school education includes the expenditure of upper secondary general schools, teacher training schools and other educational institutions providing upper secondary general education. Since 1999, the expenditure has also included upper secondary general education provided by folk high schools. Capital costs on internal rents are not included in the expenditure. Subject pupils in upper secondary general school education are not included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil for the annual and time series data in the data publications since 2020. In the data published in earlier years subject pupils were included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil.

Expenditure of vocational education includes the expenditure of initial vocational education leading to a qualification of vocational education institutions, including music schools and colleges, sports education centres, folk high schools and adult education centres and government transfer financed curriculum-based further vocational education. In time series data, the expenditure of initial vocational education of folk high schools and adult education centres is included in the expenditure of vocational education since 1999. The expenditure of specialised vocational education institutions is included in the figures for vocational education. Government transfer financed curriculum-based further vocational education is included from 2001 onwards. Government transfer financed curriculum-based further vocational education is included in the data publications since 2015 in the annual and time series data. The expenditure of apprenticeship training is included in the expenditure of vocational education. The expenditure of apprenticeship training includes expenditure of vocational basic and further education organised as apprenticeship training, inclusive of expenditure of the apprenticeship training subsidised by the European Social Fund (ESF). Apprenticeship training is included in vocational education in the data publications since 2018 in the annual and time series data. The data do not include the expenditure of supplementary training purchased by regional councils and charged service activities.

The expenditure of university of applied sciences and vocational educational institutions on the Åland Islands and in the military field is not included in the expenditure of vocational education.

University of applied sciences education includes the expenditure of university of applied sciences. The expenditure of university of applied sciences education on the Åland Islands is not included in the figures. Due to changes caused by the amended Universities of Applied Sciences Act and data collection changes, the data from 2015 onwards are not fully comparable with those on earlier years. The data prior 2015 are based on the data reported in accordance with legislation on the state contribution system. As of 2015, the data are based on the data collected by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The expenditure of Police University College is included in the university of applied sciences expenditure from 2015 onwards. Prior 2015 the expenditure of Police University College is partly included in the expenditure of vocational education. New students registered as absent are not included in the numbers of students used for calculating expenditure per students for university of applied sciences education.

University education and research comprises the expenditure of universities. Consumption expenditure refers to budget funded operating expenditure as entered in the financial statements of the state, inclusive of expenditure arising from the construction and acquisition of buildings. Additionally, the consumption expenditure of university education and research includes external research funding of universities. The expenditure of universities includes the rents of Senate Properties from 1995 onwards (for only part of the financial year 1995). Due to changes caused by the amended Universities Act, the data on 2010 are not fully comparable with those on earlier years. The figures for 2010 exclude transferable appropriations for universities' operating expenditure and for universities' joint expenditure. As of 2010, the data include expenditure under budget sub-item 29.40.50 for the running of government-funded universities. The figures exclude the expenditure of teacher training schools and the National Library, as well as VAT compensations to universities.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The average number of persons in a household has a fundamental effect on the expenditure averages per household of different population groups. The expenditure of families with children per household is larger than in small households (e.g. one-person households and elderly households).

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Consumption of fixed capital (P.51C) represents the amount of fixed assets used up, during the period under consideration. Consumption is the result of normal wear and tear and foreseeable obsolescence, including a provision for losses of fixed assets as a result of accidental damage which can be insured against.

Consumption of fixed capital should be distinguished from the depreciation shown in business accounts. It refers to the amount of fixed assets used up, during the period under consideration. It should be estimated on the basis of the stock of fixed assets and the probable average economic life of the different categories of those goods.

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Consumption of heating energy in residential buildings comprises the consumption of fuels, electricity, district heating, and ambient energy. Heating energy comprises the energy of the main heating system and those of other forms of supplementary heating, inclusive of devices associated with heating of domestic water, saunas, ventilation and heat distribution. In these statistics, supplementary heating is referred to as additional heating. Some of the electricity used by housing companies in residential properties has also been allocated to heating and ventilation systems. Consumption includes energy sources bought or otherwise acquired for housing (e.g. wood fuel produced for own use) and losses from the use of fuels (e.g. boiler losses).

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Consumption of heating energy in spaces comprises the consumption of fuels, electricity, district heating, and ambient energy. Heating energy comprises the energy of the main heating system and those of other forms of supplementary heating, inclusive of devices associated with ventilation and heat distribution. In these statistics, supplementary heating is referred to as additional heating. Some of the electricity used by housing companies in residential properties has also been allocated to heating and ventilation systems. Consumption includes energy sources bought or otherwise acquired for housing (e.g. wood fuel produced for own use) and losses from the use of fuels (e.g. boiler losses).

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Income and consumption expenditure calculated per consumption unit can be used to compare households of different sizes and structures with each other. There are several different ways of calculating consumption units. From 2002, the income distribution statistics and the Household Budget Survey have used the OECD's adjusted consumption unit scale recommended by Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities, where
- other over 13-year-olds receive the weight 0.5
- children receive the weight 0.3 (0 to 13-year-olds).

The selected consumption unit scale has a significant effect on income levels and on placement of different population groups in the income distribution.

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The size of the consumption unit represented by the household-dwelling unit is indicated as the sum of the weights of its members. In accordance with international recommendations the value of each member of a household-dwelling unit is determined as follows:
- first adult aged 18 and over = 1.0
- subsequent adults aged 18 and over = 0.7
- each person aged under 18 = 0.5.

If all persons in the household-dwelling unit are aged under 18, the weight of the first member is 1.0 and that of subsequent members 0.5.

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The employees’ contract-based weekly working hours are based on a written or oral employment contract. Working hours can also be defined in the general collective agreement. If the employment contract states the minimum number of hours, contract-based weekly working hours refers to them. If a person has annual working hours, total working time, a zero-hour contract, piecework or commission work, he/she is not considered to have contract-based weekly working hours.

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The contributing cause of death is recorded in the death certificate. The doctor will report in part II of the death certificate as contributing causes of death the reasons which have adversely affected the development of the condition leading to death and hence contributed to it. The contributing cause of death can be recognised from the data, but it is not used in the compilation of annual statistics.

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The effect of changes in capital intensity (volume of capital services/hour worked) on the change in productivity of labour.

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The labour composition refers to changes occurring in labour input. In productivity surveys, hours worked and labour compensations are cross classified according to employees’ age, educational level and sex. It is thus possible to notice what part of productivity growth is caused by changes in these factors.
The employment statistics data starting from 1975 have been used in evaluating the labour composition. The data are divided into the above-mentioned categories. A specific weight is determined for each category by utilising average wages and salaries in the category (assuming that wages and salaries describe the marginal productivity of the labour force). One category consists of, say, highly educated women aged 30 to 54, who, by their age and education, can be assumed to earn more than a man with upper secondary level education aged under 30, for example. If the relative share of highly educated people, for example, grows inside the total labour input or if the relative pay of the highly educated rises, this is visible as growth in the labour composition term.

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Control means the ability to determine the general policy of an enterprise by choosing appropriate directors as needed. Enterprise A is deemed to be controlled by institutional unit B when B controls - directly or indirectly - more than half of its shareholders' voting power or more than half of its shares.

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Unconditional imprisonment is deemed to be convertible to community service if it is at most eight months long and it has not been passed for the following offences: refusing military service (1438/2007), refusing civil military service (1446/2007), and a civil military service offence (1446/2007).

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Convertible bonds are bonds that the holder may convert into a specified number of the issuer's shares within a specific period. Convertible bonds differ from bonds with equity warrants in that the option component cannot be detached from the bond component. After the option has been exercised, the principal tied to the convertible bonds is removed from the issuer's accounts and converted into share capital.

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A convict prisoner has been placed in a penal institution to serve a sentence of unconditional imprisonment, a sentence of conditional imprisonment he/she has been ordered to serve in a penal institution, and/or the remaining sentence after having lost the right to probation.

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A corporation may be sentenced to a corporate fine if a person who is part of its statutory organ or other management or who exercises actual decision-making authority therein has been an accomplice in an offence or allowed the commission of the offence or if the care and diligence necessary for the prevention of the offence have not been observed in the operations of the corporation. A corporate fine is imposed as a lump sum. The corporate fine is at least EUR 850 and at most EUR 850,000. More details on corporate criminal liability are provided in Chapter 9 of the Criminal Code.

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Corporations subject to taxation include: 1) corporations subject to taxation, 2) bodies jointly and severally liable for tax withholding, such as unregistered companies, foundations or association, 3) jointly owned forests, 4) farms, 5) trade associations and 6) other units subject to taxation.

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The cost index describes cost changes caused to entrepreneurs from acquisition of inputs for a contract or an assignment.

Costs are accrued by own labour input and various products and services bought. Cost indices are sometimes also referred to as input indices.

The cost index describes changes in prices of cost factors relative to the selected base year. Cost indices are calculated with a method where different cost factors are weighted together by their proportions of total costs. The Laspeyres calculation index formula is used in the calculation, whereby the weights are from the base year.

Statistics Finland produces cost indices for building construction and civil engineering, earth movers and forest machinery, rail, taxi and ambulance transport.

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The cost index of rail transport describes changes in the cost factors of prices of tram and metro transport. The index is a Laspeyres type index.

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Costs arising from credits granted by a small loan company during a quarter. Such costs incurred by clients include one-off handling fee, hire-purchase surcharge, costs arising from postponement of maturity and SMS charges from the raising of the credit. Costs arising from the collection of credits are not included in this item.

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Costs of training refer to indirect and direct costs of training in total. Indirect costs include labour costs of employees who took part in training during the training period and direct costs are fees and payments to outside training providers, training participants' travel expenses, accommodation, food and daily allowances, trainers' labour costs, costs of premises and equipment and materials.

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The number of seats in the council depends on the size of the municipality (population). The smallest number of councillors is 17 (maximum population 2,000) and the highest 85 (population of over 400,000).

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A candidate in his/her home municipality who has been elected from among the municipal election candidates on the basis of the votes cast.

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All persons entered in the Population Register are indicated a country of birth, which is determined on the basis of the mother's permanent home country at the time of birth. This means, for example, that the country of birth of Estonian immigrants born before Estonian independence is the Soviet Union. Similarly, the country of birth of people who were born in areas that Finland has subsequently ceded is Finland even though the area no longer is Finnish territory. Country of birth is indicated according to the form of government at the time of birth.

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The country of consignment for imports refers to a member country from which the good was originally sent to be exported to Finland either directly or through a second country.

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The country of destination for exports refers to the latest known member country to which the good has meant to be exported from Finland.

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Country of location is the country of registration of an institutional unit. The country of location is often, but not always, the same as the nationality of an institutional unit.

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The country of origin is the country where the good was produced or manufactured. If the good was manufactured in two or several countries, the country of origin is the country where the latest significant and economically justified manufacturing or processing has taken place.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Has one of the following as a hobby: handicraft, writing, dancing, photography, gardening, fine arts, playing an instrument, singing, cooking, video photography, creating music (composing), recitation, acting.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Allocated credit loss reserves are removed from the outstanding credit only when they are directed to the customer and the credit loss is recorded.

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The credit loss adjusts the income of the real estate by the amount of revenue lost during the financial year. These include, for example, unpaid rents which have been considered to be lost forever. For example, the revenue obtained in the recovery process already recorded as a credit loss is recorded as an adjustment item.

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The Criminal Sanctions Agency belongs to the administrative field of the Ministry of Justice and is responsible for managing and developing the implementation of community service and imprisonment sentences.

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Transport performed by a road motor vehicle registered in one country between a place of loading in a second country and a place of unloading in a third country. Such transport may involve transit through one or more additional country or countries.

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The crude birth rate refers to the number of births per 1,000 persons of the mean population.

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The crude divorce rate refers to the number of divorces per 1,000 persons of the mean population.

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The general fertility rate indicates the number of liveborn children per 1,000 women of the mean population aged 15 to 49.

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The crude marriage rate refers to married women per 1,000 of the mean population.

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The crude remarriage rate refers to the number of second or higher order marriages contracted by women per 1,000 previously married women of the mean population.

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In the Finnish Travel survey, a cruise usually refers to a round trip by boat/ferry outside the territorial waters of Finland. A cruise usually includes an overnight on board (overnight cruise). If a cruise does not include an overnight on board it is called 'a day cruise'. A cruise may or may not include a visit (same-day visit) ashore in the destination country, but no overnight stay in that country. A cruise can also be a one-way overnight cruise, if departure or return is done by some other means of transportation (e.g. by air) and the trip does not include any night spent in the country visited. By purpose cruises are broken down to leisure cruises or business/professional cruises, e.g. seminars on board.

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The cubic capacity of a building is calculated in accordance with the Finnish Standards Association's standard SFS 2460, RT 120.12.

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For buildings completed after the beginning of 1980, data on cubic capacity of residential buildings are available from a register. For buildings completed prior to this, missing data on cubic capacity are imputed by means of data available from the building stock on floor area and cubic capacity by purpose of use and year of construction.

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Cultural and recreational services include training of employees and related payments, diverse cultural and recreational services, such as library, museum, archiving and other cultural and sports services. The item also includes health services.

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Has visited one of the following at least once during a year: theatre, concert, opera, dance performance, film, festival, art exhibition, museum.

In addition to the audience of cultural events, also persons that have visited art exhibitions or museums are included in cultural audience.

Cf. audience of cultural events.

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The current account shows flows of goods, services, primary and secondary income between residents and non-residents.

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The household's current transfers paid are mainly formed of direct taxes and social security contributions. In addition, current transfers paid include compulsory pension contributions and unemployment insurance premiums, as well as child maintenance support paid. Taxes paid do not include church tax, voluntary individual insurance premiums (from 2000 regarded as savings in the income distribution statistics) and indirect taxes. Current transfers paid are based on register data, except for withholding taxes paid on interest income. From 2011 onwards, current transfers paid also include part of current transfers between households (e.g. bills paid for other households and money given for studying).

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Current transfers received by households and persons are formed of earnings-related and national pensions and other social security benefits, social allowances and other current transfers received.

Other social security benefits are such as rehabilitation allowances, daily and parental allowances, compensations of statutory accident insurance and earnings-related unemployment allowance.

Social allowances are such as child benefits, support for care of small children, conscript's allowance, social assistance, general housing allowance, study and research grants, basic unemployment allowance and labour market allowance.